Monthly Archives: March 2014

IN REMEMBRANCE: 3-30-2014

LEO BRETHOLZ; ESCAPED NAZI TRAIN TO AUSCHWITZ

Leo Bretholz testified in Congress in 2011, asking that Holocaust survivors be allowed to sue a French railway for its role in death-camp deportations. Credit Karen Bleier/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

Mr. Bretholz, who died at 93 on March 8, would describe how, as a Jew, he had evaded Nazi concentration camps by living as a fugitive from 1938 to 1945, hunted in almost every country in Europe by the Nazis and their collaborators in Belgium, France, Luxembourg and Austria.

The Nazis had many helpers in capturing those they would tattoo, he explained.

The high point of his talk was the account of his leap from the train carrying him and a thousand other Jewish deportees to Auschwitz on Nov. 5, 1942. It was a French train, he said, operated by the state-owned railway, the Société Nationale des Chemins de fer Français, or S.N.C.F.

His escape, he said, came after he and another man had studied the railway guards’ surveillance routines. Prying loose the bars of a small window, they timed their jump from Convoy 42 on a curved stretch of rail somewhere in eastern France. Once the train slowed, they had “to avoid the floodlights, which the guards aimed over the entire length of the concave curvature of the train” at such junctures, he wrote in his 1998 memoir, “Leap Into Darkness: Seven Years on the Run in Wartime Europe.”

Arriving at Auschwitz. Credit Sovfoto/UIG, via Getty Images

Mr. Bretholz, who lived in Pikesville, Md., repeated that account to students in the Baltimore area for years. Then, in 2000, it became eyewitness evidence in a class-action lawsuit seeking reparations from S.N.C.F.

The lawsuit died in 2011, after the United States Supreme Court declined to review a lower court’s ruling that the case was outside American jurisdiction. But when S.N.C.F. became involved in commuter rail contracts in Maryland, Mr. Bretholz became a prominent voice in the reparations effort.

“All I want is a declaration — a forceful declaration — of: ‘We did something very wrong, something inhumane. We sent people to their deaths,’ ” Mr. Bretholz told The Washington Post in an interview this year.

He became the star witness at congressional hearings on the proposed Holocaust Rail Justice Act, which would allow Holocaust victims and their families to sue S.N.C.F. in the American courts. He testified a half dozen times before panels of the Maryland State Legislature to support legislation that would bar S.N.C.F. from bidding on a planned $6 billion high-speed rail system unless it acknowledged its role and agreed to compensate victims. He had been scheduled to testify again in Annapolis on the Monday after his death.

S.N.C.F. has long acknowledged that it transported 76,000 Jews and other so-called “undesirables” to Auschwitz from the Drancy internment camp outside Paris. But it has refused to pay reparations, saying it had acted under duress, by orders of France’s German occupiers.

By Mr. Bretholz’s account, however, S.N.C.F. was actively complicit in the horrors of the deportations. The rail operators packed people into cattle cars, he said, leaving barely room to sit. They failed to provide adequate food or water. They were vigilant in keeping their passengers from escaping.

Wartime France, he wrote, was “the most important and very venal cog in the wheel of Hitler’s Holocaust co-conspirators.”

Leo Bretholz was born on March 6, 1921, in Vienna, the oldest of three children of Max and Dora Fischmann Bretholz, immigrants from Poland. His father, a tailor and amateur Yiddish actor, died in 1930. His mother worked as an embroiderer to support Leo and his two sisters, Henriette and Edith.

He left Vienna at 17 with a train ticket purchased by his mother, amid the growing menace of Nazi control, arriving in Trier, at the western edge of Germany. He then forded the Sauer River into Luxembourg and found his way to Belgium.

Mr. Bretholz traveled on a kind of Underground Railroad for the stateless Jews of Europe for the next seven years. He found sanctuary with relatives, in Jewish ghettos, among orders of Roman Catholic nuns and priests. He assumed aliases and slept in ditches. Toward the end of the war, he joined a Jewish resistance group known as La Sixièeme. After the war he settled in Baltimore, where he had relatives. He found work in the textile business, then as a partner in a liquor store, then in the book selling business.

In 1962, he received a letter from the Jewish Community Council of Vienna. It spoke of his mother and two sisters, who had been sent to a Nazi transit ghetto in occupied Poland:

“This is to confirm that, according to our records, Mrs. Dora Bretholz, Miss Henriette Bretholz and Miss Edith Bretholz were deported to Izbica on 9 April 1942 and that they do not appear on the list of returnees.”

Mr. Bretholz’s daughter Edie Norton, who confirmed her father’s death, at his home, quoted the letter in an email Wednesday. She said his receiving the bureaucratic notification decades after he last saw his family made her father determined to tell his family’s story. Besides her, Mr. Bretholz is survived by another daughter, Denise Harris; a son, Myron; a half-sister, Helen Meyer; and four grandchildren. His wife of 57 years, Florence Cohen Bretholz, died in 2009.

At one of his last talks in a classroom several years ago, filmed for a short documentary, “See You Soon Again,” Mr. Bretholz said that in his considered view there was no real distinction between Holocaust “survivors” and everybody else.

“If that evil had conquered the world,” he said, “we wouldn’t be here. You are all survivors.”

SOURCE

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VERA CHYTILOVA; MADE DARING FILMS IN CZECH NEW WAVE

Vera Chytilova in 1978. Her best-known film was “Daisies.” Credit David A. Andelman/The New York Times

Ms. Chytilova died after a long illness, her family told the Czech national news agency, CTK.

The only prominent woman among the Czech New Wave directors —a group of avant-garde auteurs in the 1960s who included Milos Forman and Jiri Menzel — Ms. Chytilova was known for films that were formally rigorous even by the standards of the movement.

Mordant, darkly farcical satires of life in Communist Czechoslovakia, Ms. Chytilova’s movies might employ disjointed, nonlinear narratives; rapid, deliberately dizzying cuts; speeded-up or slowed-down action; and stark shifts between black-and-white and color from one scene to the next.

In a 1978 profile, The New York Times described her as “a director long considered in the first rank of Czechoslovak filmmakers, who once were numbered among the best in the world.”

Ms. Chytilova’s best-known film, “Daisies,” completed in 1966 but banned in Czechoslovakia until the next year, is widely regarded as her masterwork.

That film, hedonist and picaresque, follows two young disaffected Czech women, Marie I and Marie II, through a series of pranks as they flaunt their nubile sexuality, toy with the affections of a string of hapless men and engage in the gleeful, wanton destruction of property.

In a retrospective article about “Daisies” in 2012, The Boston Globe said it embodied “the ethos of the Prague Spring turbocharged.”

In the film’s most emblematic moment, in which female erotic power is reimagined as an orgy of gastronomic sabotage, the Maries ravish a banquet by literally walking over it, their stiletto heels spearing all manner of delicacies as they shimmy down the table.

The scene caused the picture to be denounced on the floor of the Czech Parliament for the amount of food — “the fruit of the work of our toiling farmers” — expended in the making of it.

“Daisies,” which was shown in several Western cities soon after its completion, won the grand prize at the Bergamo Film Festival in Italy. Over the years, Ms. Chytilova’s work has been shown at the Museum of Modern Art in New York, the Brooklyn Academy of Music and the New York Film Festival.

Her next film, “(We Eat) the Fruits of Paradise,” a dark spin on the Adam and Eve story involving a suspected serial killer, was released in 1970. But with the liberalization of the Prague Spring uprising of 1968 overturned by the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia that year, she was barred from making films for nearly a decade.

Vera Chytilova was born on Feb. 2, 1929, in Ostrava, now in the Czech Republic. After university studies in philosophy and architecture, she held a series of jobs: technical draftsman, photo retoucher, fashion model and, finally, “clapper girl” at the Czech national film studio.

Enthralled by the filmmaking process, she rose to become an assistant director there. She later trained at the film school of the Academy of Performing Arts in Prague.

Unlike many prominent Czech filmmakers — Mr. Forman, for instance, who settled in the United States and whose films include “One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest” and “Amadeus” — Ms. Chytilova chose to remain in Czechoslovakia after 1968.

For one thing, she saw herself as more provocateur than dissident: though disenchanted with its specific manifestations, she retained an essential belief in the socialist cause.

For another, as she often said, she preferred to battle the system from within its confines. (During the 1960s, as she struggled to wrest financing for her films from state officials, Ms. Chytilova was known to have used the threat of jumping out of a window to instant remunerative effect.)

In the mid-1970s, frustrated by her inability to ply her craft — she was then directing TV commercials under a pseudonym — Ms. Chytilova wrote to the Czech president, Gustav Husak, restating her belief in socialism and saying, “I want to work!”

The ban was lifted, though her films remained subject to the same level of government censorship as the work of other Czech artists.

Ms. Chytilova’s next film, “The Apple Game,” the story of sexual escapades in a hospital maternity ward, was completed in 1977. When it opened the next year at a single theater in Prague, The Times reported, “lines formed around the block.”

Her later films include “The Very Late Afternoon of a Faun,” about an aging Lothario; “Tainted Horseplay,” about AIDS; and “Expulsion From Paradise,” about nudists.

If Ms. Chytilova’s work after the fall of Czech Communism in 1989 lacked the bite — and the critical reception — of her earlier pictures, she did not want for subject matter. In one of her best-known post-Communist films, “The Inheritance,” she lampooned the new capitalist fervor sweeping the former East bloc.

Ms. Chytilova’s husband, Jaroslav Kucera, a noted Czech cinematographer who shot many of her films, died in 1991. Survivors include a son, Stepan Kucera, and a daughter, Tereza Kucerova.

As she made clear in a 2004 Czech documentary, “Journey: Portrait of Vera Chytilova,” Ms. Chytilova had no regrets about the manner in which she approached her career.

“I was daring enough to want to do what I wanted,” she said, “even if it was a mistake.”

SOURCE

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JAMES REBHORN, AN ACTOR OFTEN PLAYING A MAN IN A SUIT

James Rebhorn with Dianne Wiest in “The Odd Life of Timothy Green” (2012). His roles often included lawyers and politicians. Credit Phil Bray/Walt Disney Pictures

The cause was melanoma, his agent, Dianne Busch, said.

Mr. Rebhorn had memorable supporting roles in major films and worked consistently in television and theater. He appeared in more than 50 films, including “Meet the Parents,” “Independence Day,” “My Cousin Vinny” and “Cold Mountain.”

In the acclaimed political thriller “Homeland,” now in its fourth season on Showtime, he played the pivotal role of Frank Mathison, the father of Carrie Mathison, the C.I.A. officer played by Claire Danes. The show has chronicled how both father and daughter have grappled with bipolar disorder.

Tall and lanky with an ever-receding hairline, Mr. Rebhorn liked to joke that his characters tended to wear suits, whether he was the secretary of defense in “Independence Day,” the 1996 blockbuster about an alien invasion, or an assistant district attorney in the ballyhooed series finale of “Seinfeld.”

Mr. Rebhorn and Rebecca Henderson in “Too Much, Too Much, Too Many” at the Roundabout Underground Theater in 2013. Credit Sara Krulwich/The New York Times

On stage, Mr. Rebhorn was active in the Roundabout Theater Company and appeared on Broadway in a successful 2004-05 revival of “Twelve Angry Men,” playing a juror; in the short-lived “Prelude to a Kiss” in 2007; in Arthur Miller’s “The Man Who Had All the Luck” in 2002; and a production of Thornton Wilder’s “Our Town” in 1988-89, among other plays.

Last year he played a character with Alzheimer’s disease in Meghan Kennedy’s “Too Much, Too Much, Too Many,” at the Roundabout Underground’s Black Box Theater.

“Although his role is perhaps the play’s smallest, Mr. Rebhorn gives a beautiful portrait of a man struggling to come to terms with his faltering mind,” the critic Charles Isherwood wrote in The New York Times.

Mr. Rebhorn in 2009. Credit Peter Kramer/KRAPE, via Associated Press

James Rebhorn was born on Sept. 1, 1948, in Philadelphia. He said he had considered becoming a Lutheran minister but ultimately decided to study political science and theater at Wittenberg University in Ohio. He then moved to New York and received a master’s degree in fine arts from Columbia University.

Mr. Rebhorn began working in theater and television commercials as well as on soap operas before he started appearing in films. In the 1980s he acted in a number of television movies and the theatrical release “Silkwood.” In the 1990s he had supporting roles in films like “The Talented Mr. Ripley,” “Scent of a Woman,” “Basic Instinct,” “Carlito’s Way,” “Lorenzo’s Oil” and Woody Allen’s “Shadows and Fog.” More recently he appeared in “The Odd Life of Timothy Green” and “Sleepwalk With Me,” both in 2012. He continued to work in television as well, appearing in “Law & Order” and “The Practice,” and he had recurring roles on USA’s “White Collar” and on HBO’s “Enlightened.”

He is survived by his wife, Rebecca Linn, and his daughters, Hannah and Emma.

In an interview in 2007, Mr. Rebhorn said that he had tried to do one play every year because he enjoyed the immediate feedback from the audience. He allowed that it could be difficult to escape the roles people were used to seeing him in — the lawyers and politicians — but he noted that he had recently played a farmer in a Hallmark Hall of Fame special called “Candles on Bay Street.”

“It was a small role, but it was a pleasure to be a character who doesn’t wear a suit,” he said.

SOURCE

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CARTOON OF THE DAY: GENERAL MOTORS

GM BAILOUT

Randy Bish has been drawing cartoons at the Pittsburgh Tribune-Review since 1985, where he produces six political cartoons each week and a sports cartoon on Sundays.

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SKYWATCH: SOLAR SYSTEM SPECTACULAR, LUNAR ECLIPSE PREVIEW, AND MORE

News
Orbits of 2012 VP<sub>113</sub> and Sedna

S. Sheppard / Carnegie Inst. of Science

New Object Offers Hint of “Planet X”

March 26, 2014 | Astronomers have kicked around the idea of a distant “Planet X” for decades. But the recent discovery of 2012 VP113, located in an orbital “no man’s land” roughly twice as far away as Pluto, has stoked the possibility that it really exists. > read more

Active Volcanoes on Venus?

March 24, 2014 | New images of Venus show features that look like hot spots, hinting there may be active volcanoes on the planet today. > read more

Chariklo: An Asteroid with Rings

March 27, 2014 | An international team of observers has made the surprising discovery that a distant asteroid has two distinct, dense rings. > read more

Rosetta Spots Its Comet

March 28, 2014 | The European Space Agency’s comet-chasing spacecraft has imaged its destination for the first time since waking up from 957 days of hibernation. > read more

Dark Matter Spotted in the Milky Way?

March 25, 2014 | A team of astronomers claim to have the most compelling case for annihilating dark matter yet. > read more

Observing
Times for April 2014's total lunar eclipse

Sky & Telescope diagram

April’s Total Eclipse of the Moon

March 28, 2014 | North Americans haven’t seen a total eclipse of the Moon since 2011. But this long dry spell breaks late on the night of April 14–15 as the Moon makes a leisurely pass through Earth’s deepest shadow. > read more

Tour April’s Sky by Eye and Ear!

March 28, 2014 | It’s a great month, celestially speaking: the brilliant stars of winter crowd in the southwest at nightfall, Jupiter is joined by Mars, and the first total lunar eclipse in 2½ years occurs at mid-month. > read more

Community
Clouds along the occultation path

aviationweather.gov

Global “Fail” for the Big Regulus Cover-up

March 27, 2014 | There was widespread hope that thousands of skywatchers would see the bright star Regulus briefly occulted by an asteroid early on March 20th. In the end, likely no one saw it. Here’s why. > read more

This Week’s Sky at a Glance

This Week’s Sky at a Glance

March 28, 2014 | Mars is nearing opposition, so are Ceres and Vesta, and the gigantic Winter Hexagon is falling over westward as spring takes hold. > read more

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HATEWATCH: RACIST FLDS SECT HIT WITH MULTIMILLION AWARD IN ARIZONA

Racist FLDS Sect Hit With Multimillion Award in Arizona

By Bill Morlin on March 25, 2014 – 3:54 pm

A jury in Phoenix has returned a record $5.2 million award, concluding that two cities in Utah and Arizona controlled by the Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (FLDS) engaged in a pattern of religious discrimination and intimidation.

The jury award went to Ronald and Jinjer Cooke, who brought a federal civil rights lawsuit. They claimed they were denied water, sewer and electrical service after moving in 2008 to the area of Colorado City, Ariz., and Hildale, Utah — twin cities known as Short Creek that are heavily dominated by the polygamous FLDS sect. Without the services, the couple was forced to live in a 35-foot travel trailer.

Significantly, the state of Arizona joined in the couple’s lawsuit, helping to convince the jury that the cities are engaging in ongoing violations of the federal Fair Housing Act and Arizona Fair Housing Act.

Ron-Jinjer-Cooke

Elected and municipal officials in the two cities, including the police chief, are members of the FLDS, identified as an anti-black, homophobic and antigovernment hate group by the Southern Poverty Law Center. The FLDS is a breakaway from the far more mainstream Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Saints, which abandoned polygamy, or “plural marriage,” in the late 19th century.

During the trial, evidence and testimony revealed the municipalities and their officials deliberately discriminate against non-FLDS members, hoping to drive them from the communities.

“Clearly, this is the largest jury award ever against FLDS-controlled municipalities — the cities of Hildale and Colorado City,” the Cookes’ attorney, William G. Walker of Tucson, told Hatewatch today.

“The claim was the cities were controlled by the FLDS and discriminated against the Cookes by denying them culinary water, sewer service and electrical power from 2008 to the present,” Walker said. “The discrimination continues to this day.”

The jury award doesn’t end the case because the panel agreed with a claim brought by the Arizona Attorney General Office, finding that the Cookes aren’t the only victims, that the FLDS-controlled cities of Hildale and Colorado City engage in a “pattern and practice” of discrimination against others. That finding allows the state of Arizona, which can’t get a monetary award, to return to court and ask Senior U.S. District Judge James A. Teilborg for an injunction ordering an end to the practice and statutory fines. Legal paperwork initiating that phase is expected to be filed in the next few weeks.

When the Cookes filed their discrimination suit in June 2010, the state of Arizona agreed with their claim and was allowed by a judge to join in the litigation as an intervener.

But then the cities retaliated against the Cookes, the jury determined, using “coercion, intimidation and interference.” Evidence at trial showed those acts included having Cooke’s brother, Seth Cooke, arrested on criminal charges that were later dismissed, and filing a civil suit against Ron and Jinjer Cooke that was later dismissed.

During the 23-day trial, the jury was shown evidence taken in two FLDS raids in Texas and Utah, Walker said. That evidence including written orders — so-called “dictations” — from the sect’s leader, Warren Jeffs, issued both when he was a fugitive and later, after he was imprisoned for sexual offenses against young girls. Jeffs, who is still in prison, has preached that black people are the descendants of Cain, “cursed with black skin” and selected by God to be the “servants of servants.”

FLDS member and current Colorado City Mayor Joseph Allred didn’t want to answer questions about Jeffs’ orders when he was subpoenaed as a witness during the trial. “He took the stand and invoked the Fifth Amendment [against self-incrimination] to more than 50 questions we put to him,” Walker told Hatewatch.

Experts believe there are an estimated 10,000 FLDS members living in various communities throughout the United States. In the past, there also have been FLDS communities in Eldorado, Texas; in Edgemont, S.D.; and in the tiny Colorado communities of Cotopaxi, Florence and Mancos, in addition to Short Creek and in Boundary County, Idaho, at the Canadian border.

FLDS members adhere to some of the early-day teachings of the Mormon Church, believing the only way to heaven is for men have multiple “celestial wives,” bearing as many children as possible. They don’t celebrate Christmas, nor do they condone rock music, comic books, cartoons or makeup.

The modern-day LDS church renounced polygamy in 1890 to allow Utah to gain statehood. The church currently denounces the FLDS movement, even though plural marriage theology remains in its “doctrine and covenants.” It gave up its last anti-black policies in 1978.

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INTERNATIONAL DAY OF REMEMBRANCE OF SLAVERY VICTIMS AND THE TRANSATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE: MARCH 25, 2014

 

INTERNATIONAL DAY OF REMEMBRANCE OF SLAVERY VICTIMS AND THE TRANSATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE

Quick Facts

The International Day of Remembrance of the Victims of Slavery and the Transatlantic Slave Trade remembers the lives of Africans who were forced into slavery in North, Central and South America.

Local names

Name Language
International Day of Remembrance of Slavery Victims and the Transatlantic Slave Trade English
Día Internacional de Rememoración de las Víctimas de la Esclavitud y la Trata Transatlántica de Esclavos Spanish
יום זיכרון בינלאומי לקורבנות עבדות וסחר העבדים הטראנס Hebrew
اليوم الدولي لإحياء ذكرى ضحايا الرق وتجارة الرقيق عبر Arabic
노예 제도 및 대서양 노예 무역 희생자 추모의 날 Korean
Internationalen Tag des Gedenkens an die Opfer der Sklaverei und des transatlantischen Sklavenhandels German

International Day of Remembrance of Slavery Victims and the Transatlantic Slave Trade 2014

Tuesday, March 25, 2014

International Day of Remembrance of Slavery Victims and the Transatlantic Slave Trade 2015

Wednesday, March 25, 2015

The United Nations’ (UN) International Day of Remembrance of the Victims of Slavery and the Transatlantic Slave Trade is on March 25 each year. It honors the lives of those who died as a result of slavery or experienced the horrors of the transatlantic slave trade. It is also an occasion to raise awareness about the dangers of racism and prejudice.

Broken Chain

The International Day of Remembrance of the Victims of Slavery and the Transatlantic Slave Trade remembers the lives of transatlantic slave trade victims.

©iStockphoto.com/Perttu Sironen

What do people do?

Various events are held on the International Day of Remembrance of the Victims of Slavery and the Transatlantic Slave Trade. These include memorial services and vigils for those who died in slavery, as a result of the slave trade, or from campaigning to end of slavery. In addition, African-American inspired music is performed and exhibitions of art and poetry inspired during the slave trade era are opened.

This day is also an occasion to educate the public, especially young people, about the effects of racism, slavery and the transatlantic slave trade. Educational events are held in schools, colleges and universities.

Public life

The International Day of Remembrance of the Victims of Slavery and the Transatlantic Slave Trade is a global observance and not a public holiday.

Background

About 17 million people were transported against their will from Africa to North, Central and South America during the 16th century and up until the 19th century. Millions more died while being transported to the Americas. This mass deportation and resulting slavery are seen as one of the worst violations of human rights. Some experts believe that its effects are still felt in Africa’s economies.

Slavery was officially abolished in the United States on February 1, 1865. However, racial segregation continued throughout most of the following century and racism remains an important issue today. Hence, the International Day of Remembrance of the Victims of Slavery and the Transatlantic Slave Trade is an occasion to discuss the transatlantic slave trade’s causes, consequences and lessons. It is hoped that this will raise awareness of the dangers of racism and prejudice.

On December 17, 2007, the United Nations General Assembly designated March 25 as the International Day of Remembrance of the Victims of Slavery and the Transatlantic Slave Trade. It was first observed in 2008.

Themes

The theme in 2008 was “Breaking the Silence, Lest We Forget”.

International Day of Remembrance of Slavery Victims and the Transatlantic Slave Trade Observances

 

Weekday Date Year Name Holiday type Where it is observed
Tue Mar 25 2008 International Day of Remembrance of Slavery Victims and the Transatlantic Slave Trade United Nations observance
Wed Mar 25 2009 International Day of Remembrance of Slavery Victims and the Transatlantic Slave Trade United Nations observance
Thu Mar 25 2010 International Day of Remembrance of Slavery Victims and the Transatlantic Slave Trade United Nations observance
Fri Mar 25 2011 International Day of Remembrance of Slavery Victims and the Transatlantic Slave Trade United Nations observance
Sun Mar 25 2012 International Day of Remembrance of Slavery Victims and the Transatlantic Slave Trade United Nations observance
Mon Mar 25 2013 International Day of Remembrance of Slavery Victims and the Transatlantic Slave Trade United Nations observance
Tue Mar 25 2014 International Day of Remembrance of Slavery Victims and the Transatlantic Slave Trade United Nations observance
Wed Mar 25 2015 International Day of Remembrance of Slavery Victims and the Transatlantic Slave Trade United Nations observance
Fri Mar 25 2016 International Day of Remembrance of Slavery Victims and the Transatlantic Slave Trade United Nations observance
Sat Mar 25 2017 International Day of Remembrance of Slavery Victims and the Transatlantic Slave Trade United Nations observance
Sun Mar 25 2018 International Day of Remembrance of Slavery Victims and the Transatlantic Slave Trade United Nations observance
Mon Mar 25 2019 International Day of Remembrance of Slavery Victims and the Transatlantic Slave Trade United Nations observance
Wed Mar 25 2020 International Day of Remembrance of Slavery Victims and the Transatlantic Slave Trade United Nations observance

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INTERNATIONAL DAY OF SOLIDARITY WITH DETAINED AND MISSING STAFF MEMBERS: MARCH 25, 2014

 

INTERNATIONAL DAY OF SOLIDARITY WITH DETAINED AND MISSING STAFF MEMBERS

Quick Facts

The UN’s International Day of Solidarity with Detained and Missing Staff Members is annually held on March 25.

Local names

Name Language
International Day of Solidarity with Detained and Missing Staff Members English
Día internacional de Solidaridad con los miembros del personal detenidos o desaparecidos Spanish
היום בינלאומי לסולידריות עם עצורים וחברי סגל חסרים Hebrew
اليوم الدولي للتضامن مع الموظفين المحتجزين والمفقودين Arabic
구금 누락 된 직원들과의 연대의 날 Korean
Welttag der Solidarität für gefangene und vermisste Arbeiter German

International Day of Solidarity with Detained and Missing Staff Members 2014

Tuesday, March 25, 2014

International Day of Solidarity with Detained and Missing Staff Members 2015

Wednesday, March 25, 2015

March 25 is the International Day of Solidarity with Detained and Missing Staff Members. This date is the anniversary of the abduction of Alec Collett, a journalist who died while working for the UN.

Diversity

March 25 is the UN Day of Solidarity with Detained and Missing UN Personnel.

©iStockphoto.com/Jay and Varina Patel

What do people do

The UN promotes the International Day of Solidarity with Detained and Missing Staff Members to encourage governments to do more in their power to protect UN personnel in their jobs.

The day is also a moment to remember UN personnel who have been abducted whilst doing their job, such as journalist Alec Collett. Collett worked for the UN Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East when he was abducted by armed gunman in on March 25, 1985.  His body was found in Lebanon’s Bekaa Valley in 2009 and eventually returned to his family.

Public life

The International Day of Solidarity with Detained and Missing Staff Members is a UN observance and not a public holiday

Background

Over the years, many UN personnel have been kidnapped while working for the UN and many more continue to face threats to their freedom and security.  According to the UN’s Department of Safety and Security, at least 28 UN civilian personnel were detained or arrested in 2010 in cases that were considered job-related.

The UN’s International Day of Solidarity with Detained and Missing Staff Members was created to bring awareness to these kidnappings and to call for governments and communities to protect UN workers.

International Day of Solidarity with Detained and Missing Staff Members Observances

Weekday Date Year Name Holiday type Where it is observed
Sun Mar 25 2001 International Day of Solidarity with Detained and Missing Staff Members United Nations observance
Mon Mar 25 2002 International Day of Solidarity with Detained and Missing Staff Members United Nations observance
Tue Mar 25 2003 International Day of Solidarity with Detained and Missing Staff Members United Nations observance
Thu Mar 25 2004 International Day of Solidarity with Detained and Missing Staff Members United Nations observance
Fri Mar 25 2005 International Day of Solidarity with Detained and Missing Staff Members United Nations observance
Sat Mar 25 2006 International Day of Solidarity with Detained and Missing Staff Members United Nations observance
Sun Mar 25 2007 International Day of Solidarity with Detained and Missing Staff Members United Nations observance
Tue Mar 25 2008 International Day of Solidarity with Detained and Missing Staff Members United Nations observance
Wed Mar 25 2009 International Day of Solidarity with Detained and Missing Staff Members United Nations observance
Thu Mar 25 2010 International Day of Solidarity with Detained and Missing Staff Members United Nations observance
Fri Mar 25 2011 International Day of Solidarity with Detained and Missing Staff Members United Nations observance
Sun Mar 25 2012 International Day of Solidarity with Detained and Missing Staff Members United Nations observance
Mon Mar 25 2013 International Day of Solidarity with Detained and Missing Staff Members United Nations observance
Tue Mar 25 2014 International Day of Solidarity with Detained and Missing Staff Members United Nations observance
Wed Mar 25 2015 International Day of Solidarity with Detained and Missing Staff Members United Nations observance
Fri Mar 25 2016 International Day of Solidarity with Detained and Missing Staff Members United Nations observance
Sat Mar 25 2017 International Day of Solidarity with Detained and Missing Staff Members United Nations observance
Sun Mar 25 2018 International Day of Solidarity with Detained and Missing Staff Members United Nations observance
Mon Mar 25 2019 International Day of Solidarity with Detained and Missing Staff Members United Nations observance
Wed Mar 25 2020 International Day of Solidarity with Detained and Missing Staff Members United Nations observance

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WORLD TUBERCULOSIS DAY [WHO]: MARCH 24, 2014

 

WORLD TUBERCULOSIS DAY

Quick Facts

World Tuberculosis Day is annually held on March 24 to raise awareness of tuberculosis and ways to eradicate the disease.

Local names

Name Language
World Tuberculosis Day English
Día Mundial de la Tuberculosis Spanish
עולם יום שחפת Hebrew
اليوم العالمي للسل Arabic
세계 결핵의 날 Korean
Welttuberkulosetag German

World Tuberculosis Day 2014

Monday, March 24, 2014

World Tuberculosis Day 2015

Tuesday, March 24, 2015

World Tuberculosis Day is a worldwide event that aims to raise public awareness of tuberculosis and the efforts made to prevent and treat this disease. This event is held on March 24 each year and is promoted by organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO).

Stethoscope and x-ray image of lungs.

The efforts made to prevent and treat tuberculosis are recognized on World Tuberculosis Day.

©iStockphoto.com/k0SS

What do people do?

Various World Tuberculosis Day events and activities are organized by various organizations involved in the Stop TB Partnership. WHO is a United Nations’ (UN) health authority that works with this network to promote World Tuberculosis Day each year. Campaign activities include:

  • Community discussion groups that are organized to look at ways to prevent TB.
  • Award ceremonies or other events to honor the life and work of those who dedicate their lives to prevent and fight against TB.
  • Photo exhibitions that showcase images to raise worldwide awareness of TB.
  • Charity events to raise funds for disease control (of TB) in countries that need assistance.

People, community groups and government agencies may also take the time to work with broadcast, print and online media to promote stories on the awareness of tuberculosis and the works of those who help fight against the spread of the disease.

Public life

World Tuberculosis Day is an observance and is not a public holiday.

Background

Tuberculosis, or TB, is an infectious bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which most commonly affects the lungs. It is transmitted from person to person via droplets from the throat and lungs of people with the disease. WHO estimates that the largest number of new TB cases in 2005 occurred in south-east Asia, which accounted for 34 percent of incident cases globally. However, the estimated incidence rate in sub-Saharan Africa is nearly twice that of south-east Asia.

World Tuberculosis Day, annually held on March 24, marks the day in 1882 when Dr Robert Koch detected the cause of tuberculosis, the TB bacillus. This was a first step towards diagnosing and curing tuberculosis. World Tuberculosis Day can be traced back to 1982, when the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease launched World TB Day on March 24 that year, to coincide with the 100th anniversary of Dr Koch’s discovery.

In 1996, the World Health Organization (WHO) joined the union and other organizations to promote World TB Day. The Stop TB Partnership, called the Stop TB Initiative at the time of its inception, was established in 1998. It is a network of organizations and countries fighting tuberculosis. WHO works with this partnership on to support the activities and events that take place on World Tuberculosis Day each year.

Symbols

The global campaign for World Tuberculosis Day has had different themes and slogans over the years. For example, the 2010–2011 campaign’s theme was “Innovation” and the slogan was “On the move against tuberculosis. Innovate to accelerate action”.

World Tuberculosis Day Observances

 

Weekday Date Year Name Holiday type Where it is observed
Sat Mar 24 1990 World Tuberculosis Day United Nations observance
Sun Mar 24 1991 World Tuberculosis Day United Nations observance
Tue Mar 24 1992 World Tuberculosis Day United Nations observance
Wed Mar 24 1993 World Tuberculosis Day United Nations observance
Thu Mar 24 1994 World Tuberculosis Day United Nations observance
Fri Mar 24 1995 World Tuberculosis Day United Nations observance
Sun Mar 24 1996 World Tuberculosis Day United Nations observance
Mon Mar 24 1997 World Tuberculosis Day United Nations observance
Tue Mar 24 1998 World Tuberculosis Day United Nations observance
Wed Mar 24 1999 World Tuberculosis Day United Nations observance
Fri Mar 24 2000 World Tuberculosis Day United Nations observance
Sat Mar 24 2001 World Tuberculosis Day United Nations observance
Sun Mar 24 2002 World Tuberculosis Day United Nations observance
Mon Mar 24 2003 World Tuberculosis Day United Nations observance
Wed Mar 24 2004 World Tuberculosis Day United Nations observance
Thu Mar 24 2005 World Tuberculosis Day United Nations observance
Fri Mar 24 2006 World Tuberculosis Day United Nations observance
Sat Mar 24 2007 World Tuberculosis Day United Nations observance
Mon Mar 24 2008 World Tuberculosis Day United Nations observance
Tue Mar 24 2009 World Tuberculosis Day United Nations observance
Wed Mar 24 2010 World Tuberculosis Day United Nations observance
Thu Mar 24 2011 World Tuberculosis Day United Nations observance
Sat Mar 24 2012 World Tuberculosis Day United Nations observance
Sun Mar 24 2013 World Tuberculosis Day United Nations observance
Mon Mar 24 2014 World Tuberculosis Day United Nations observance
Tue Mar 24 2015 World Tuberculosis Day United Nations observance
Thu Mar 24 2016 World Tuberculosis Day United Nations observance
Fri Mar 24 2017 World Tuberculosis Day United Nations observance
Sat Mar 24 2018 World Tuberculosis Day United Nations observance
Sun Mar 24 2019 World Tuberculosis Day United Nations observance
Tue Mar 24 2020 World Tuberculosis Day United Nations observance

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