Monthly Archives: October 2007

NOVEMBER 3RD MARCH FOR MS. MEGAN WILLIAMS STILL ON

A great thanks and a hat-tip to Ms. Phyllis Du’gas (UniversalWriter –
www.nessapublishing.com  –  ) for her hard work in keeping the story of Ms. Megan Williams in the public’s mind. If you have not paid a visit to Ms. Du’gas’s site,  please do. She has a wonderful site dedicated to Ms. Williams, and a blog which discusses many relevant issues that are pertinent to Ms. Williams’s case.

I am updating more links on Ms. Williams, courtesy of Universal Writer:

The Honorable Minister Louis Farrakhan sent a delegation consisting of Attorney Abdul Arif Muhammad, editor-in-chief of The Final Call newspaper, Student in the Ministry Abdul Khadir Muhammad of Washington, D.C. and Final Call Contributing Writer Ashahed M. Muhammad to Charleston, West Virginia to determine the facts of the case, and also to minister unto the family of the young woman who was the victim of this heinous and barbaric attack.

What follows is an exclusive interview with Megan Williams and her adopted mother,

Carmen Williams, conducted on Thursday, October 4, 2007, at their home. For the first time here you will see, in Megan Williams’ own words, the description of this repugnantly vicious assault.

The Final Call (FC):

There are actually two articles – here is the link

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“The charges pending against these individuals now are quite serious and could result in lengthy prison sentences, if not life in prison,” Miller said. “We’ve tried to use federal statutes as creatively as we can, if it fits the facts. But we can’t make a statute fit something it wasn’t intended to do.”

Source – WSAZ – News, Charleston – October 22, 2007

Update: National Hate Crime March to Help Megan Williams (INCLUDES VIDEO)

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West Virginia Hate Crime law statute states, here it is:

§61-6-21. Prohibiting violations of an individual’s civil rights; penalties.

Black Ministerial Alliance will not endorse March

Source – Charleston Daily Mail

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Leader says they are honoring wishes of abuse victim’s family

The NAACP, the Charleston Black Ministerial Alliance and the West Virginia Council on Churches announced Friday they will not endorse a march planned for November 3rd.

The black community in Charleston has sought guidance from its ministers on whether to march, Hill said.

“We felt like we needed to answer that question,” Hill said. “After our discussion, we believe our responsibility is to the community. If anyone is going to be leading them it should be us.”

A march against hate made members feel like the real issue, the well-being of the Williams family, was being forgotten, he said.

Source – Saturday Gazette Mail CharlestonState Journal
October 27, 2007

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If you want to send a card or letter to Megan, the address is as follows:

Megan Williams
c/o General Division
501 Morris St.
Charleston, WV 25301

Megan’s mother commented in an interview that Megan cries every time she receives something in the mail and has received gifts from as far away as Iraq. So if you’d like to show your love, this is the address.

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THE MARCH IS STILL ON AND WILL GO FORWARD ON NOVEMBER 3RD.

The meeting held at the church in Charleston between Malik Shabazz and the Black Ministerial Alliance got very heated!

 You can watch the video by clicking this link.

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UNIVERSALWRITER’S BLOG SITE:

http://pvdugas.wordpress.com/2007/10/02/megan-williams-updates/

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I am more than worried about all the public exposure Ms. Williams is going through on her telling the public and the news media of the cruel attacks that were done to her. Perhaps her mother thought this would give a more human face on her daughter and that she would not be just another statistic in many people’s minds. But, now, after so much media exposure, after retelling again, and again, what happened to her, I cannot help but feel that she is damaging her case against these brutish humans who harmed her so sadistically.

What she states now can, and just may come back to be used against her, when this case goes to trial.

Even right after people heard of this case, white supremacists were spewing forth their venom that this young woman was a liar. Later on, many people were saying that there is no evidence of a hate-crime, because Ms. Williams knew one of her male attackers, and that he had been arrested on a prior domestic abuse case against her, as if that negates the atrocities committed against her.

I am sure Ms.Williams may think that her publically discussing the particulars of her case may help people empathize with her. In many ways, it does.

But, I cannot help but feel that she has spoken too much and that whatever legal counsel she does have obviously did not pay attention in law school. Do not allow your client to speak directly to the public. This may damage your case irreparably. I cannot understand why her lawyer, Malik Shabazz, (co-founder of Black Lawyers for Justice and a former chairman of the New Black Panther Party for Self Defense, which is organizing the march, which is set for Nov. 3) would allow her to speak so much and so publically on facts/evidence that may be compromised and contested later on when a trial does occur. But then, this is the so-called “New Black Panthers” who are leading this event and I have very little faith or trust in them. They in no way resemble the original Black Panthers, and as far as I am concerned, this so-called New Black Panthers are not worthy enough to wipe the spit from the shoes of the original Black Panthers.

Of course by revealing her daughter’s name, and face, Carmen Williams may have felt she did her daughter a justice.

I cannot help but feel that this was the wrong way to go to give her daughter the much needed humanity that she deserved to have validation and worth as a black woman in the eyes of America.

I cannot help but feel that the supposed lawyers who have scheduled the up-coming protest rally-march for November the 3rd, are thinking more of themselves and not a damn about Ms. Williams.

Ms. Williams needs to be resting and healing from this terrible physical and psychological assault.

For this group of  black “lawyers” to be using her for their own gains is unconscionable and reprehensible.

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BEAUTY AND THE PRESIDENT

Naomi Campbell Meets Venezuelas Chavez

AP Photo

English model Naomi Campbell gestures as she leaves Miraflores Presidential Palace after a meeting w…

 

Campbell Joins Chavez at Political Rally

AP Photo

British supermodel Naomi Campbell, left, talks to Venezuelas President Hugo Chavez during a visit

 

  

“Naomi Campbell Meets Venezuelas Chavez ”  


AP – 17 minutes ago CARACAS, Venezuela -Supermodel Naomi Campbell left the glitz and bright lights of the fashion world behind Wednesday and joined Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez at a political rally and toured government-funded housing projects.

Chavez warmly greeted Campbell, planting a kiss on her hand as she arrived at a rally promoting state programs for single mothers in a long white dress.

“I’ve been here for 24 hours and I’m amazed to see the love and encouragement for the social programs that you have here for women and children in Venezuela,” the British fashion model said.

After calling Campbell “a very special woman,” Chavez blasted President Bush for maintaining Washington’s 46-year trade embargo against Cuba.

Rocky relations between Caracas and Washington could improve, Chavez said, if Americans elect a leader whose foreign policies don’t resemble those set by Bush.

“Hopefully, a U.S. president with whom it’s possible to talk, converse and discuss the world’s problems will come along,” Chavez said.

Chavez _ a close ally of Cuban leader Fidel Castro _ has repeatedly clashed with Washington since taking office in 1999.

Campbell praised Chavez’s health and education programs after a four-hour meeting Tuesday at the presidential palace, where she interviewed Chavez for an unspecified publication.

The hot-tempered model, who in January pled guilty to assaulting her maid in New York, is the latest foreign celebrity to visit Venezuela’s socialist leader.

Chavez met last month with American actor Kevin Spacey. Hollywood stars Sean Penn, Danny Glover and Harry Belafonte have also made recent trips.

LINKS:

http://realtime.com/realtime_news/rt_world_news/17144563_naomi_campbell_meets_venezuelas_chavez____.html?bod=20070531&cver=1.1.2.76&original_pcode=RT11RPBR&pcode=RTG11RT&mode=browser&user-status=not-signed-in&pageregion=title&pageid=screen-saver

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BROWNFEMIPOWER

I have given posts/links on some of my favourite fellow bloggers over a period of time:

Rachel of Rachels Tavern (http://www.rachelstavern.com/)

Stephanie of Stephanies Journal  (http://httpjournalsaolcomjenjer6steph.blogspot.com/)

And many others.

There is one fellow blogger whom I want to send a shout-out to for all the outstanding work (and then some…) she has done in the blog-o-sphere.

Brownfemipower.

Here are some links for you to read over at Brownfemipower’s blog, “Woman of Color Blog”  http://brownfemipower.com :

http://brownfemipower.com/?p=1929

http://brownfemipower.com/?p=1926

http://brownfemipower.com/?p=1924

http://brownfemipower.com/?p=1923

http://brownfemipower.com/?p=1913

Please go over and check the above links out.  This is just a tidbit of the wealth of knowledge you will receive. If you have not had the joy of reading Brownfemipower’s blog, then by all means, hurry over and obtain a wellspring of knowledge and truth.

Then learn of the power of Brownfemipower.

Brownfemipower.

Yours always in the struggle.

SALUTARE.

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MISSING TEEN

Missing teen’s family needs your help

05:16 PM CDT on Friday, October 26, 2007

Channel 11 KHOU.com staff report

The family of a missing teen is asking for help to find their 13-year-old daughter.

11 news

Blanca Hernandez has been missing since Oct. 15.

Blanca Hernandez was last seen on Oct. 15. She has talked to her father on the phone daily since she went missing. 

It is believed that she is with a Salvadorian male known as Michael Bryan in the Bellaire area.

Hernandez told her father that she is OK, but not coming home.

Investigators met with Bryan’s employer located in the 15300 block of Stuebner-Airline and found out that he worked for cash only and had not been to work in more than a week.

11 News

This is the person she is believed to be with.

Bryan told his employer that he was leaving to be with family in California, but told another employee that he was moving to Florida.

No other information is available at this time.

Anyone with information regarding this missing juvenile should contact the Harris County Sheriff’s Office at (713)755-7424 or (713)221-6000.

LINKS:

http://www.khou.com/news/local/stories/khou071026_rm_missingteen.1ac4a86a2.html

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AFRIGENEAS

While perusing a search engine that led people to my blog,  I decided to check out some of the entries it listed.

I came upon this excellent post at this site, AfriGeneas, on the history of  Black Americans who have shaped the history of the state of California. This site is dedicated to helping Black Americans to research their ancestry and the genealogical ties they can uncover.

Here is the link:

http://www.afrigeneas.com/states/ca/index-links.html

It is a fascinating site with a wealth of information.

Check it out.

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SHUT THE FUCK UP!

I finally got around to asking a question that I have been meaning to ask non-black people when the discussion of race comes up. It does not matter whether it is a topic that speaks of the horrors Native Americans have suffered, or any other oppressed racial/ethnic group, or even if the discussion is centered around black people’s history in America, the discussion always ends up with the same ‘ol, same ‘ol derailment.

Over on Rachel’s blog there was a heated discussion about a comment a white feminist (Heart) stated that angered many people because of her trivializing the major impact black women had in the three waves of the feminist movement, as well as her appropriating the sufferings of black women in this country to make a point.

Here is the link:

http://www.rachelstavern.com/?p=783#comment-89313

Later on during the discussion, another commentor (Ken) raised my wrath and took the discussion of “internecine feminism” as Belledame222 described it, off the topic, and the thread began to completely unravel from there.

Later on, I asked him the question I have meant to ask on my blog concerning when black people speak of their history in America. Anytime black people speak of their trials in America, it inevitably comes around to the deflection and denial of black people’s history by someone asking the usual question:

“But, what about the __________________(fill in the blank)?”

Translation:  anytime a subject of Black American’s sufferings in America is brought up, commentors run from the discussion and derail it with “What about so-and-so’s race?” And my favourite of them all:  “Well, the Jews…….”

Yes, the Holocaust is used more by non-Black Americans because unlike the sadistic hells Black Americans suffered, the Jewish Holocaust happened over there (Nazi Germany), and did not happen over here. Therefore, it is easy to care about someone across the seas who suffered under a different country’s hate, rather than acknowledge the vicious cruelties of America’s race hatred against her Black citizens. So easy to show understanding and compassion towards someone whose hells happened thousands of miles way. So much easier to denigrate and defile what Black Americans went through under psychotic American race-based monstrocities.

This insulting and degrading trivialization of Black American’s travils in this country disregards and marginalizes what Black Americans have endured in America. Often when I am in a group discussing Native Americans, Jews of the Holocaust, etc., are discussed, never have I ever heard anyone ask the following question:  “Well, what about the sufferings of Black Americans?” No. It is always the other way around, (when Back American’s experiences are brought into the discussion), as if what Black Americans experienced (and still do) in this country does not rate a damn with millions of people.

I asked my question of Ken on Rachel’s post. Here is an excerpt of my comment:

Ann on October 27th 9:32pm:

A question for you. And please, do answer it without going off on another wild tangent about first world nations and taxes.

Question:

Tell me, Ken, when you are sitting in on a discussion about, say, Native Americans and white America’s atrocities towards them, or the Jews of the Holocaust (yes, it happened over in Europe, but, humor me, okay?), or the internment of Japanese-Americans during WW II, do you stand up and ask the other people present:

“But, what about the black people? What about what they have suffered in America?”

Do you ever ask that question, Ken?”

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I have not received my answer from him yet, but, I did get a response from Sailorman, a frequent commentor on Rachel’s site:

 

 

Sailorman on October 28th, 2007 5:45 pm:

 

(Sailorman): “Do you consider those groups you listed to have different �ranks� of oppression? Do you feel that there are other people who are more oppressed than you?”

 

 

No.

 

I do not think of oppressed groups of people as having different “ranks” of oppression. An oppressed person/group is an oppressed person/group. Wrongs done against any racial, ethnic, religious, gender group, etc., are wrongs done period. At least that is the way I look at it. As an American I feel that the country I live in has done many monstrous acts (global domination/corruption/jingoistic imperialism), all across the third world/non-white world, in my name, thereby creating the hated image of “The Ugly American”, which was in the image of white American males who went to foreign countries and showed the worst of American atrocities towards non-white people they encountered. Now, as far as I am concerned, anyone can be an Ugly American, whether within America, or without.

 

As an American I can’t control what others do in their actions, but, I can control what I do in mine.

 

(Sailorman): “I never get up in a knot about any of the above groups claiming that they are oppressed. Because, duh, they are/were.”

 

Duh, neither do I.

 

I am not into Victim/Oppression Olympics.

 

Your sufferring (Native American, Asian-American, Black American, etc.)is not to be treated as insignificant, nor trivialized. Your suffering/history of oppression is to be validated, understood, and respected.

 

(Sailorman): “Great question. My own answer: sometimes. (more often a statement than a question, but still.)”

 

No offense, but, I am shocked that anyone was able to answer my question in the affirmative.

 

The reason I ask this question is because I never  hear that stated by any non-black person when the discussions of race occur (that is when the history of oppressed people is discussed about non-black groups). The one thing that ires me the most is when the discussion is centered on black people, it then veers off into the proverbial, “But, what about the ____________fill in the blank?” derail. The trivialization and disrespect of black people’s history in America is why I asked that question.
Then, even though the discussion was specifically about black people’s history (which America runs from like a guinea fowl with its neck twisted around 360 degrees), someone will blurt out the old, “Shut up. Get over it”, garbage.

 

It is the height of utter disregard towards any oppressed group of people for someone to tell them to STFU when they are discussing their history. Their discussing their history in no way disregards nor minimizies the history other oppressed people in the world have suffered.

 

It would be nice if many people would realize that.

 

(Sailorman): “But I would speak up (and have) if they claim that they are the ONLY ones who are/were oppressed, or the ones who are the MOST oppressed.”

 

Same here. But, I have never had that happen with me. Usually I include the history of other oppressed peoples in when discussing my own, i.e.: Jews (they have the same 400 year history of slavery as do Black Americans); Native Americans (genocide); India (the partitioning of that sub-continent into Pakistan and India), etc.

 

(Sailorman): “And to reverse the fascinating question: If someone ELSE was making that same statement and left off one of those groups you mentioned, what would/did you do?”

 

I would speak up as I often have, both on my blog, and in every day life:

 

-Black people of Brazil
-Chukchi of the polar Arctic North
-Latino day laborers cheated out of wages in America
-Afro-Mexican people of Mexico
-Aboriginals of Australia
-Native people of Fiji

 

Everyone has a right to be heard and not dismissed as if their history is invalid.

 

Everyone has the right to be listened to, and respected.

So, there are two questions that I am asking of all non-black people, whether you are sitting at home with your relatives, standing around the company water cooler, or where ever you may be.

Okay.

1. When those of you are sitting around discussing the race issue in America, and the groups of oppressed people being discussed do not include black people…………………….

………………do any of you ever state/ask:

“But, what about the black people? What about what they have suffered in America?”

I ask this question because I have yet to hear anyone say to a Native American, Latino, Japanese-American, etc., when speaking of their history in America to STFU. The STFU comment is always directed towards black Americans. Stating this comment to black people trivializes and makes insignificant the history and contributions of black Americans to America. I have yet to hear of anyone telling Jewish-Americans to STFU and “Get over it!” I have yet to hear anyone tell a Native American to, “Get over it! This is past history!”

“STFU!”

It is only with black people (to my knowledge) that we are told to shut up and not to add our perspective to America’s racist past of inhuman atrocities.

We are told to stop speaking so that the conversation can be shut down because our painful history has yet to be acknowledge in its fullness the way it has never been. Yes, America knows she has done some sadistic and savage wrongs to us, but, turning around and facing up to her legacy will be a major step in according her black citizens humanity and recognition as fellow citizens, and fellow human beings.

So, everyone.

Have any of you ever asked anyone that question?

“But, what about the black people? What about what they have suffered in America?”

2. If you are discussing your people’s history in America, do you get told to shut the fuck up, we do not want ot hear about your (Asian, Native American, Athabascan, Barbadian, Latino……) people’s history in the good ‘ol USA?

Two questions I ask since “Shut the fuck up! is often the normal cop-out excuse to run from America’s racist history.

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A TIMELINE IN THE HISTORY OF HOUSTON

HOUSTON TIMELINE
Compiled by Ashley Streetman

1836 – On April 21, General Sam Houston’s Texas army wins independence from Mexico in the Battle of San Jacinto.

1836 – A. C. and J. K. Allen purchase land from Mrs. Elizabeth Parrott, widow of John Austin, and name the site Houston after their friend and hero, General Sam Houston.

1836 – Houston founded on Aug. 30 by brothers Augustus C. and John K. Allen, who pay just over $1.40 per acre for 6,642 acres of land near the headwaters of Buffalo Bayou.

1836 – Allen Brothers call on Gail Borden (publisher, surveyor, and originator of condensed milk) and Thomas H. Borden to survey and map the site. Gail Borden laid out the town’s streets 80′ wide, with the principal east-west thoroughfare (Texas Avenue) 100′ wide.

1837 – General Sam Houston, first president of the Republic of Texas, signs an act authorizing Houston to incorporate. Houston was capitol of the Republic from 1837 until 1839, in which the capitol was moved to Austin. The capitol building was located at the corner of Texas Avenue and Main Street.

1837The Laura is the first steamship to visit Houston.

1837 – The city incorporates and the first mayor is elected. Population: 1,000.

1839 – The city charter provides for a town of nine square miles. Two aldermen are elected from each of four wards. They are required to be free white inhabitants who are citizens of Texas, who have resided in Houston for at least six months, and have held more than $100 in real estate for three months.

1840 – On April 4, seven Houston businessmen form the Houston Chamber of Commerce.

1840 – The first local dock was constructed as the Texas Congress authorized the city to build and maintain wharves.

1840 – Houston is divided into four wards when the city’s charter was altered.
First Ward: The North of Congress and West of Main.
Second Ward: The North of Congress and east of Main.
Third Ward: The south of Congress and east of Main.
Fourth Ward: The south of Congress and west of Main.

1840 – The city council passes an ordinance prohibiting the carrying of deadly weapons.

1840 – Seventy-five resident German families founded the Deutscher Verein fur Texas to aid newcomers.

1841 – The Houston-Austin stage line begins operations.

1841 – A city council ordinance establishes the Port of Houston, giving it control over all wharves, landings, slips, and roads on the banks of Buffalo and White Oak Bayous as well as the right to collect wharfage fees and invest the funds in Bayou improvements.

1842 – President Sam Houston orders the capitol of Texas to move back due Houston when Mexican troops threaten San Antonio in 1842. Houston sent men to Austin to fetch the archives, however Austin citizens feared Austin would permanently lose its status as capital if the papers were moved. In what became known as the “Archive War,” citizens from Austin stopped Houston’s men and returned the archives to Austin. During 1842 through 1845, officials met at Washington-on-the-Brazos and in the city of Houston. Austin became the capital again in 1844.

1842 – The city of Houston extends from the bayou on the north to Walker Street on the south, from Bagby on the west to Caroline on the east.

1842 – Texas’ oldest newspaper, The Galveston Daily News, starts publication.

1842 – After a Mexican army invades Texas, Congress, by order meets in special session at Houston, using the Presbyterian Church building by order of President Sam Houston.

1842 – The first city hall is built.

1845 – Texas is admitted to the Union.

1846 – Texas becomes 28th state.

1846 – Houston hosts a pioneer convention of primary school teachers.

1847 – A treaty is signed between German settlers and Comanches.

1847 – A local census sets the Harris county population at 4,737, with 607 qualified voters and 622 slaves.

1850 – First census after Texas joins the Union counts 2,397 Houstonians. Galveston is the state’s largest city.

1851 – Two treaties are signed by federal commissioners and representatives of major Texas tribes. Neither treaty is ever implemented.

1853 – Houston’s first railroad–the Buffalo Bayou, Brazos & Colorado Railroad–begins operations.

1853 – Texas Legislature appropriates $4,000 for Buffalo Bayou improvements.

1853 – Houston connects via telegraph with Shreveport, Louisiana.

1854 – Free public education as provided by state law comes to Houston.

1856 – Construction was begun on the Houston Tap. Built with slave labor, it would link Houston to national lines by 1873.

1858 – City pays $2,500 for land and “good buildings” for a municipal hospital.

1859 – One of Houston’s two recorded lynchings claims the life of George White, an accused rapist.

1860 – Houston’s population reaches 5,000.

1861 – Houston and Harris County vote to secede from the Union. During the war, the closest fighting was at Galveston.

1861 – Sam Houston resigns as governor after refusing to take Confederate oath of allegiance.

1861 – The city of Houston becomes the military headquarters for the confederate district of Texas.

1862 – A group of pro-Union German settlers are massacred.

1862 – Houston becomes inundated with refugees from Galveston when federal troops occupy Galveston. Many of the refugees chose to remain after the end of the war.

1865 – Three black schools are established by the Freedman’s Bureau.

1865 – Major General Gordon Granger arrives in Galveston and proclaims the emancipation of Texas slaves, becoming what would be known as “Juneteenth.”

1866 – First National Bank founded.

1868 – First trolley cars (mule-drawn) appear; first gaslights installed.

1868 – The Ku Klux Klan appears in Houston.

1868 – The Houston City Railway places its first trolley car in operation on McKinney Avenue. They were pulled by mules.

1870 – Texas readmitted to the Union. 1870 census shows Houston’s population up to 9,332. Harris County’s has reached 17,375, ranking it second in the state.

1870 – Congress designates Houston a port; first survey of Houston’s proposed ship channel conducted.

1870 – Congregation Beth Israel establishes the first synagogue in Houston, at Franklin and Crawford.

1870 – The first 300 Chinese immigrant laborers arrive in Houston.

1872 – Congress makes its first appropriation–$10,000–for ship channel improvements.

1874 – The City Council is enlarged to five wards, with 10 aldermen.

1874 – Houston Board of Trade and Cotton Exchange organized.

1875 – First grain elevator built on Houston Ship Channel.

1876 – Free public schools are opened. Teachers receive 10 cents per day per pupil.

1877 – Houston’s first free public schools established.

1877 – Houston’s first telephone is installed. Its range was about one mile.

1881 – Last battle with the Apache in Texas.

1885 – Prairie View State Normal School, first black land grant college, holds first classes.

1890 – Houston becomes the railroad center of Texas.

1880 – First telephone exchange created.

1882 – Houston Electric Light Co. organized. Houston and New York were the first cities to build electric power plants.

1897 – The first horseless carriage appears; the first asphalt paving is installed. City Council has six wards, 12 aldermen.

1899 – First city park opens. (This site–now Sam Houston Park–contains several of Houston’s earliest buildings.)

1900 – A devastating hurricane and tidal wave strikes Galveston, costing some 8,000 lives and untold property damage.

1900 – Houston’s population reaches 44,600.

1900 – Jesse Jones comes to Houston to work for his uncle. Jesse Jones would ultimately become one of Houston’s most influential citizens.

1901 – Houston Left Hand Fishing Club purchases the city’s first automobile.

1901 – Oil discovered at Spindletop. Spindletop, and later discoveries of oil at Humble in 1905 and Goose Creek in 1906, put Houston in the center of new oil and oilfield equipment development.

1902 – Congress appropriates $1 million for work on the Houston Ship Channel.

1903 – The city council orders separate compartments on streetcars for blacks and whites.

1904 – The City adopts a poll tax of $2.50, effectively eliminating 7,500, mostly black, voters from the electorate.

1905 – Houston has 80 automobiles.

1905 – The City changes to the commission form of government. A mayor and four aldermen are now elected at large.

1907 – The first traffic control measures are instituted, with horses having the right-of-way.

1910 – A group of Houston businessmen headed by the Houston Chamber of Commerce proposes to Congress–and Congress accepts–a novel plan to split ship channel development costs between Houston and the federal government.

1911 – The Ship Channel Navigation District is established. A bond issue of $1,250,000 for channel improvements is authorized. The federal government matches the amount — a precedent.

1912 – Rice Institute (now Rice University, one of the nation’s premier universities) begins classes.

1912 – One of the most destructive fires in the city’s history swept forty blocks in the Fifth Ward, rendering about 1000 people homeless.

1913 – Houston Symphony established.

1913 – The city provides segregated drinking fountains in front of City Hall, and Union Station establishes divided waiting rooms.

1913 – The first suffragette parade is led by Mrs. Angelina Pankhurst on Main Street.

1914 – 25′ deep Houston Ship Channel completed and formally dedicated.

1915 – First deep water vessel, the S.S. Satilla, calls at Houston.

1917 – After the city is placed under martial law, a race riot erupts when black soldiers from Camp Logan enter the city to avenge alleged maltreatment of black soldiers by Houston police. By the time order is restored on August 27, seventeen people were killed and sixteen were wounded. Thirteen black participants were later hung at Fort Sam Houston.

1917 – Houston’s first policewoman, E. J. Backer, goes to work.

1918 – Women vote in Texas for the first time. Mrs. Hortense Ward is the first woman to register at the courthouse to vote. In Houston, 15,640 women register for the first time for a national election.

1920 – The local Houston chapter of the Ku Klux Klan is formed.

1921 – Oscar Holcombe is elected to the first of 11 intermittent terms as mayor. His last term ends in 1958.

1921 – Censors banned the showing of films in a black theater, because black boxer Jack Johnson acted in them with whites.

1921 – In a mammoth ceremony, 2,051 Houstonians were inducted into the Ku Klux Klan.

1922 – Edith E.T. Wilmans is first woman elected to the Texas House of Representatives.

1922 – Radio station WEV began broadcasting music and impromptu speeches for about 300 receivers.

1923 – Second National Bank becomes Houston’s first air-conditioned building.

1923 – Mayor Oscar Holcombe is banished from the Ku Klux Klan for defying their mandates.

1924 – Miriam A. Ferguson is elected first woman governor of Texas.

1924 – The Jefferson Davis charity hospital for blacks was dedicated. In the same year, the Negro Hospital, a gift of J.S. Cullinan, was dedicated.

1924 – The Museum of Fine Arts of Houston, the first in Texas, opens.

1926 – Margie Elizabeth Neal becomes the first woman in Texas Senate.

1926 – Natural gas first piped into Houston.

1927 – Houston Junior College (now the University of Houston) established.

1927 – Houston Colored Junior College is established as part of the city’s school system. The school would become Texas Southern University in 1951.

1928 – First airmail arrives at the Houston airport, a cow pasture without runways, lights, or drainage.

1928 – Robert Powell, a twenty-four-old black man, was lynched for allegedly murdering a policeman. Two men tried for the lynching were acquitted even though they had signed a confession.

1928 – National Democratic Convention held in Houston.

1929 – City officials reject park and zoning recommendations developed in a two-year planning study; Houston remains unzoned.

1929 – Houston experiences a major flood with Buffalo Bayou rising at the rate of 1 inch every 5 minutes.

1930 – Lyndon Baines Johnson teaches school in Houston for two years.

1930 – Census ranks Harris County as state’s most populous at 292,352.

1933 – State legislature passes a law prohibiting “Caucasians” and “Africans” from boxing and wrestling against each other.

1933 – City authorities reject plans for a Southern Pacific Station because blacks and whites would use the same ramps to reach trains.

1934 – Intracoastal Canal links Houston to Mississippi River navigation system.

1935 – Braniff International inaugurates air service to Houston.

1935 – The worst flood in the city’s history: Buffalo Bayou inundates sections of downtown Houston. Efforts to establish a county flood control program begin.

1936 – The M.D. Anderson Foundation is established to benefit the public, advance knowledge and alleviate human suffering. Upon his death in 1939, the trust received nearly $20,000,000.

1940s – Petrochemical complex develops, taking feedstocks from nearby refineries.

1940 – The bus system replaces a 60-year tradition of streetcars. In an agreement between the city and the Houston Electric Company, streetcar lines are abandoned in favor of an all-bus transit system.

1941 – New master plan for Houston thoroughfares emphasizes a loop system.

1942 – Houston voters authorize the sale of land adjacent to Hermann Park to the M.D. Anderson Foundation. The 134-acre site near Hermann Hospital, would become the massive Texas Medical Center.

1942 – Mrs. W.P. Hobby of Houston is named head of the U.S. Women1s Army.

1943 – Texas Medical Center founded.

1943 – The City changes to a city-manager form of government with a part-time mayor and eight councilmen.

1947 – Holcombe is elected mayor on a strong-mayor platform. The charter change eliminates the city manager.

1947 – Legislature establishes Texas State University for Negroes (now Texas Southern University).

1947 – Alley Theatre established.

1947 – Engineering begins on Gulf Freeway, Texas’ first freeway.

1948 – Houston voters reject proposed zoning ordinance.

1948 – Dec. 31 annexation expands Houston’s area from 74.4 to 216 sq. mi.

1948 – Port of Houston ranks second nationally in total tonnage.

1948 – Houston annexes six suburbs and doubles in size to 216 square miles.

1948 – Voters reject zoning. Houston continues as the only unzoned major city in the U.S.

1949 – KLEE-TV broadcasts first Houston commercial TV program.

1950 – The population reaches 596,000.

1950 – Five blacks filed suit to gain access to the Municipal Golf Course.

1953 – Houston becomes the nation’s most air-conditioned city.

1953 – KUHT-TV, the nation’s first public broadcast TV station, goes on the air.

1954 – Segregation on city buses ends.

1954 – KPRC-TV made Houston’s first color broadcast.

1955 – Houston Grand Opera Association and Houston Ballet founded.

1955 – Houston metro area population reaches 1,000,000.

1955 – A biracial school committee suggests desegregation “if the superintendent finds it possible, under existing circumstances.”

1956 – Sponsored by the NAACP, Dolores Ross and Beneva Williams file suit to counter the segregation policy of Houston’s school system.

1956 – The Census Bureau noted a trend in population movement toward the suburbs.

1957 – To head off criticism during impending law suits, the school board adopted a vague policy of no desegregation before the completion of the existing building program and none before 1960.

1958 – Houston is dubbed “Murder town, USA” by Time Magazine for maintaining the highest murder rate in the nation, 15 per 100,000.

1958 – Jefferson Davis Hospital, a city charity institution, was struck by an epidemic of staphylococcus infection in which 279 cases and 17 deaths occurred, serving to highlight the low quality of health care for the poor.

1958 – Mrs. C.E. White becomes the first black person to be elected to the School Board. Shortly after her election, a cross is burned at her home.

1958 – Kenny Rogers of Houston has his first national hit record with “Crazy Feeling.”

1959 – The school board reveals a 373-page report to the District Court that it has no desegregation plan and requests additional time to prepare one. Judge Connally orders the board to submit a plan by June 1, 1960.

1960 – Rice Institute becomes Rice University.

1960 – Black students from Texas Southern University initiate the first sit-in in Texas, demanding equal lunch counter service.

1960 – District Court Judge Connally labeled the school board’s desegregation plan a “palpable sham and subterfuge.” He ordered desegregation to commence in all first grades in September 1960 and to proceed at one grade per year thereafter. A month later, the U.S. Supreme Court rejects the Houston School Board’s appeal to defer integration of public schools. When city of Houston complies with this request, restrictions are so severe that few benefit from desegregation. Thus, six years after the historic Supreme Court decision, only 12 out of the city’s 46,000 black children enjoyed its benefits.

1962 – NASA’s Manned Spacecraft Center moves to Houston.

1962 – Houston voters reject proposed zoning ordinance.

1962 – Mayor Cutrer ends desegregation in all city owned buildings.

1962 – The Federal Court of Appeals in New Orleans overturned Houston’s brother-sister rule, which prohibited registration by a black child in a “white school” if the child had an older brother or sister in an all-black school.

1962 – Rice University begins admitting students of all races, introduces tuition fees, and for the first time becomes eligible to participate in federally funded programs.

1963 – A study illustrates that flight from center city continues. In 1940, 70 percent of the doctors, 76 percent of the engineers, and 30 percent of the architects worked in the central business district. In 1963 the percentages were 14 percent for doctors, 24 percent for engineers, and 10 percent for architects.

1963 – The new Ben Taub Hospital for city-county patients opened.

1963 – Rice University became the first U.S. university to establish a Department of Space Science.

1963 – University of Houston allows blacks to be eligible for intercollegiate athletic programs.

1963 – Texas state law limits annual annexations to 10 percent of existing city areas, somewhat constraining Houston’s land growth.

1964 – The city of Houston drops the item of race designation on job applications.

1964 – Seven hundred black students are integrated into the public schools.

1965 – First event held in Astrodome, originally named Harris County Domed Stadium.

1965 – In May, segregation issues reach near crisis levels. Led by the NAACP, 85% of the black students boycott five black high schools to protest the slow pace of integration in Houston. While blacks led by Rev. W.A. Lawson pressed for public school integration and rallied to protest a projected bond issue financed segregated facilities, voters approved the school bond. In July after a warning from the Justice Department, the school board votes four to three to integrate all grades by 1967 and seek federal aid for Houston’s schools.

1969 – Houston Intercontinental Airport begins operations.

1969 – “Houston” is the first word spoken from the lunar surface.

1970 – Rothko Chapel was opened as an ecumenical chapel to house the last great works of Mark Rothko.

1970 – After a federal pollution panel inspected the ship channel, one of its members termed the waters “too thick to drink and too thin to plow.”

1970 – After the school board voted to institute voluntary integration measures which would meet federal court recommendations. Angry parents formed organizations to oppose the board’s action and to make economic reprisals against board members Drs. Robbins and Oser.

1970 – Houston receives a Model Cities grant of $13 million for the first five years of the Model Cities program.

1970 – In August, the Justice Department files suit against the Houston School District, charging that they were continuing to operate segregated facilities. The suit contended that segregation involved Mexican-Americans as well as blacks.

1970 – In September, Mexican-Americans open a boycott of Houston’s public schools and set up all-Mexican-American “hulga” schools. Demands included to be treated as a separate ethnic minority with special problems and to not be grouped with blacks or any other group.

1971 – Shell Oil Co. relocates corporate headquarters to Houston. More than 200 major firms moved headquarters, subsidiaries, and divisions here in the 1970s.

1971 – Leonel Castillo becomes the first Hispanic voted to city office as Controller. During his third term, he resigned to become director of the U.S. Immigration & Naturalization Service during the Carter Administration.

1971 – Barbara Jordan is the first black elected to the U.S. House of Representatives from the South.

1972 – The Galleria opens.

1973 – Arab oil embargo quadruples oil prices in 90 days, fueling Houston’s 1973-1981 economic boom.

1973 – The Famed Chicken Ranch at La Grange ceases operations, due to an investigative report by Marvin Zindler.

1974 – Ronald Clark O’Bryan of Pasadena kills his 8-year old son with cyanide-laced candy after a night of trick-or-treating for $20,000 in insurance money, prompting parental concerns about the safety of Halloween candy to this day.

*1976 –  Otis King, debate partner of future Congresswoman Barbara Jordan in 1956, and black college student at Texas Southern University, Otis King engaged and beat Harvard University’s team when most of America was still legally segregated.

After earning a post-doctoral law degree from Harvard and serving as dean of TSU’s law school, he broke another barrier in 1976 by becoming the first black city attorney in Houston.

1976 – The Houston Public Library moves into its new $11 million building in downtown Houston.

1977 – Chamizal agreement creates undisputed boundary between Texas and Mexico.

1978 – Voters approve and fund MTA (Metro Transit Authority).

1978 – The drowning of Joe Campos Torres, a man who was beaten and thrown into Buffalo Bayou by police, focuses national attention on the subject of police brutality in Houston.

1978 – Robert W. Wilson of Houston is awarded the Nobel Prize in physics.

1979 – First anniversary of Torres’ death ends with a bloody riot in Moody Park.

1979 – U.S. attorney rules that the City’s annexations have violated the Voting Rights Act by diluting minority voting strength. To meet this objection, voters approve a charter change that provides for nine City Council members elected from single-member districts, plus five elected at large.

1980 – 14.4 percent of the Houston CMSA (424,957 persons) are Hispanic, of whom 88 percent are of Mexican ancestry, the sixth largest Spanish origin population in the U.S.

1981 – Houston elects its first female mayor, Kathy Whitmire.

1982 – Employment peaks at 1,583,400 in March, before onset of recession.

1982 – “Ninfa,” a musical based on the life of restaurateur Ninfa Laurenzo, opens in Houston.

1982 – Death of singer Lightnin’ Hopkins of Houston.

1983 – 155 office buildings completed.

1983 – The population reaches 1,775,000; Houston becomes the nation’s fourth largest city.

1983 – Hurricane Alecia strikes the Texas Gulf Coast with Houston directly in its path.

1986 – Houston hosts the U.S. Olympic Festival.

1987 – The George R. Brown Convention Center and the Wortham Theater are completed.

1990 – Houston hosts the World Economic Summit, held at Rice University.

1991 – The population reaches 3,338,900.

1992 – Houston hosts the Republican National Convention, held at the Astrodome and the George R. Brown Convention Center.

1994 – Voters reject a zoning ordinance in low voter turnout.

1994 – The Houston Rockets bring Houston its first National Sports Title after winning the NBA Championship.

1997 – Former Police Chief Lee Brown elected City of Houston’s first black mayor.

1998 – Dr. Ferid Murad of the UT-Houston Medical School wins the Nobel Prize in medicine.

2001 – Tropical Storm Allison devastates much of the city, flooding major medical facilities, including most hospitals in the Texas Medical Center, and debilitating nearly all communication systems.

Primary Source data:

The Houston Area League of Women Voters & Texas Best Online
http://www.texasbest.com/houston/history.html

Key events in Early Texas
http://www.lsjunction.com/events/events.htm

(Information courtesy of Houston Institute of Culture)

*EDITED February 5, 2016.

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