CENTER FOR CIVIL AND HUMAN RIGHTS: LYNCHING POSTCARDS OF INHUMANITY EXHIBIT: JANUARY, 2011

 
The Disciples of Hatred, in Their Own Words and Images
By BRENT STAPLES
Published: December 22, 2008

Nazi hunters have made an art of exposing war criminals through photographs taken in the death camp era. This strategy would have worked well against Southern lynch-mob killers who posed for the camera while murdering African-Americans in a campaign of terror that persisted into the mid-20th century.

Black American lives were viewed as expendable in the pre-civil rights South. The murderers who hanged, dismembered or burned black victims alive — before crowds of cheering onlookers — knew well that the law would not act against them. These savage rituals were meant to keep the black community on its knees.

The white men and women who flocked to these carnivals of death sometimes brought along young children, who were photographed no more than an arm’s length away from a mutilated corpse. These photos were often turned into grisly postcards that continued to circulate even after Congress made it illegal to mail them.

A particularly vivid lynching postcard depicts the charred and partially dismembered corpse of Jesse Washington, who was burned before a crowd of thousands in Waco, Tex., in 1916.

The card, which appears to have been written by a white spectator to his parents, is signed “your son Joe.” He refers to the horrific murder — in which the victim’s ears, fingers and sexual organs were severed — as the “barbecue we had last night.” He identifies himself in the crowd by placing a mark in ink about his head.

By permitting images like this one to move through the mail at all, the government tacitly endorsed lynching, along with the presumption that African-Americans were less than human. The mailings also aided a propaganda campaign that was intended to terrorize the black population in the nation as a whole, not just in the South.

Joe from Waco is no doubt long dead. But many of the people who attended lynchings as children in the 1930’s and 40’s must be still alive and walking the streets of the principal states of the lynching belt. They include Mississippi, Georgia, Alabama, Arkansas, Louisiana and Texas, all of which voted against the first black president.

The nearness of the past was fully evident not long ago in Atlanta, when the collectors James Allen and John Littlefield were trying to mount an exhibition of lynching images that had drawn a huge audience and international attention when shown at the New-York Historical Society’s “Without Sanctuary” exhibition of 2000.

Influential Atlantans equivocated. As a person familiar with the issue told me recently: “There were concerns that people in crowds were still alive. And of course, family members and relatives of those people might come in and have to say, ‘That’s my dad’ or ‘That’s my mom.’ ”

“Without Sanctuary” was shown in Atlanta in 2002 at the Martin Luther King Jr. National Historic Site and drew more than 175,000 people, three times as many as viewed it in New York. But the tension surrounding the exhibition made it seem unlikely that the images and the accompanying documents would find a permanent home in Georgia or any other lynching belt state.

So it came as a surprise earlier this year when the collection was acquired by Atlanta’s Center for Civil and Human Rights, an ambitious cultural and historical institution that has yet to break ground for its building and plans to open in 2011. The center aspires to emulate the Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington in method, linking the civil rights movement to national and international issues of the day.

The notion of housing the lynching material in the same institution as, say, Martin Luther King’s sermons and speeches strikes some as jarring. But this is just as it should be. The civil rights movement can only be properly understood in the context of the reign of terror that gripped black Southerners.

The victims of those public hangings and burnings were sometimes accused of crimes. But they were often guilty of nothing more than seeking the right to vote, speaking truth to white power. Black business owners who challenged white supremacy in the marketplace were favorite targets.

The victims were sometimes killed after they had been marched through the black section of town — with a stop at the school for the colored — and fully exploited as a testament to black powerlessness. Lynching, in other words, was a method of social control.

When visitors to the Center for Civil and Human Rights confront these realities, they will know what the civil rights pioneers faced — and what they feared — when they took those first, perilous steps along the path to freedom.

SOURCE

File:Lynchedmen.JPG
Elias Clayton, Elmer Jackson and Isaac McGhie were murdered on June 15, 1920 in Duluth,  Minnesota. The Duluth memorial has been described by its artist as attempting to “reinvest [the victims] with their unique personalities”, to counteract the way the lynchings “depersonalized” them.

File:ThomasShippAbramSmith.jpg
Thomas Shipp and Abram Smith, lynched in Marion, Indiana on August 7, 1930. There would have been a third victim—–James Cameron—–if a white onlooker had not spoken out in his defense, and thereby saving his life from the lynch mob.

Laura Nelson.   (The barefoot corpse of Laura Nelson. May 25, 1911, Okemah, Oklahoma.
Gelatin silver print. Real photo postcard. 3 1/2 x 5 1/2″
Etched in the negative:”copyright-1911-g.h.farnum, okemah. okla 2898.” Stamp on reverse, “unmailable.” Photographer: George H. Farnum, 1911.

This is the only known photo of a lynched black woman. Laura was murdered with her 14-year-old son Lawrence, after he was castrated by members of the mob, in Okemah, Oklahoma in 1911. She was raped by members of the mob, before she and her child were brutally murdered.

The lynching of Laura Nelson and her son, several dozen onlookers. May 25, 1911, Okemah, Oklahoma.
Gelatin silver print. Real photo postcard. 5 1/2 x 3 1/2″

Etched in the negative: “1911 copy right, g.h. farnum, okemah. okla\ 2897.”

The lynching of Lawrence W. Nelson, May 25, 1911 in Okemah, Oklahoma. Gelatin silver print. Real photo postcard. 3 1/2 x 5 1/2. Etched in the negative: “copyright-1911-g.h.farnum, okemah. okla 2894.” Photo by George H. Farnum. The image was published in 1911 as a postcard.

Here is a  partial list of known murdered lynch martyrs:

Name Date Location Notes
ALBANO, Angelo 1910 Florida [Source: "American Lynching"]
ALLEN, Rich 29 June 1905 Watkinsville, Oconee County, Georgia [Source: "Bloody Injuries" by Professor Wilkes, University of Georgia]
ALLEN, Tom June 1911 Walton County, Georgia While returning to Walton County to stand trial for allegedly raping a white woman, a group of men hung Tom from a telegraph pole and shot him. [Source: Fire in a Canebrake]
ANDERSON, Winston April 1878 Clarkesville, Tennessee Winston was lynched for attempting rape. [Source: The Daily Constitution , Atlanta, Georgia, 17 Apr 1878]
ARGO, Henry 1930 Chickasha, Oklahoma [Source: "American Lynching"]
AYCOCK, Lon J. 29 June 1905 Watkinsville, Oconee County, Georgia [Source: "Bloody Injuries" by Professor Wilkes, University of Georgia]
BAKER, Frazier 22 February 1898 Lake City, South Carolina -
BAKER, Julia 22 February 1898 Lake City, South Carolina -
BARKSDALE, Heyward “Monk” May 1893 Laurens, South Carolina Supposed crime: attempted rape. [Source: The Atlanta Constitution , Georgia, 11 May 1893]
BAZEMORE, Peter 26 March 1918 Lewiston, North Carolina Peter allegedly attacked a white woman. [Source: The Crises, "Old Magazine Articles"]
BEST, Walter 23 February 1918 Fairfax, South Carolina Walter was hanged. He was accused of murder. [Source: The Crises, "Old Magazine Articles"]
BLACK, William January 1890 Barnwell County, South Carolina Supposed crime: stealing. [Source: The Atlanta Constitution , Georgia, 12 Jan 1890]
BOYD, General 1913 Walton County, Georgia General was lynched for allegedly entering a white woman’s room at night. [Source: Fire in a Canebrake]
BROWN, Gene 27 July 1918 Ben Hur, Texas Gene was hanged for an alleged assault on a white woman. [Source: The Crises, "Old Magazine Articles"]
BUSH, Samuel June 1893 Decatur, Illinois Supposed crime: Assault on a white woman. [Source: The Atlanta Constitution , Georgia, 4 June 1893]
BYRD, James Jr. June 1998 Jasper, Texas James was chained to the bumper of a truck and dragged to his death.
CABINESS, Bessie 4 June 1918 Huntsville, Walker County, Texas Sarah and her six children (George, Peter, Cute, Tenola, Thomas, and Bessie) were shot because of an alleged threat made by George Cabiness to A. P. W. Allen. [Source: The Crises, "Old Magazine Articles." For more information, click here.]
CABINESS, Cute 4 June 1918 Huntsville, Walker County, Texas Sarah and her six children (George, Peter, Cute, Tenola, Thomas, and Bessie) were shot because of an alleged threat made by George Cabiness to A. P. W. Allen. [Source: The Crises, "Old Magazine Articles." For more information, click here.]
CABINESS, George 4 June 1918 Huntsville, Walker County, Texas Sarah and her six children (George, Peter, Cute, Tenola, Thomas, and Bessie) were shot because of an alleged threat made by George Cabiness to A. P. W. Allen. [Source: The Crises, "Old Magazine Articles." For more information, click here.]
CABINESS, Peter 4 June 1918 Huntsville, Walker County, Texas Sarah and her six children (George, Peter, Cute, Tenola, Thomas, and Bessie) were shot because of an alleged threat made by George Cabiness to A. P. W. Allen. [Source: The Crises, "Old Magazine Articles." For more information, click here.]
CABINESS, Sarah 4 June 1918 Huntsville, Walker County, Texas Sarah and her six children (George, Peter, Cute, Tenola, Thomas, and Bessie) were shot because of an alleged threat made by George Cabiness to A. P. W. Allen. [Source: The Crises, "Old Magazine Articles." For more information, click here.]
CABINESS, Tenola 4 June 1918 Huntsville, Walker County, Texas Sarah and her six children (George, Peter, Cute, Tenola, Thomas, and Bessie) were shot because of an alleged threat made by George Cabiness to A. P. W. Allen. [Source: The Crises, "Old Magazine Articles." For more information, click here.]
CABINESS, Thomas 4 June 1918 Huntsville, Walker County, Texas Sarah and her six children (George, Peter, Cute, Tenola, Thomas, and Bessie) were shot because of an alleged threat made by George Cabiness to A. P. W. Allen. [Source: The Crises, "Old Magazine Articles." For more information, click here.]
CALHOUN, John 25 May 1918 Barnesville, Georgia John was shot for the alleged murder of John A. Willis. [Source: The Crises, "Old Magazine Articles"]
CARROLL, James April 1879 Frederick, Maryland The Daily Constitution , Atlanta, Georgia, 22 Apr 1879: “The jury of inquest upon the lynching of the negro, James Carroll, returned a verdict that he was hanged by men unknown to the jury.”
CLARKE, Andrew 21 December 1918 Shubuta, Mississippi Major Clarke and his brother Andrew, as well as Maggie and Alma House were hanged for the murder of Dr. E. L. Johnston. [Source: The Crises, "Old Magazine Articles"]
CLARKE, Major 21 December 1918 Shubuta, Mississippi Major and his brother Andrew, as well as Maggie and Alma House were hanged for the murder of Dr. E. L. Johnston. [Source: The Crises, "Old Magazine Articles"]
CLAYTON, Elias June 1920 Duluth, Minnesota -
CLAYTON, George 18 June 1918 Mangham, Louisiana George was hanged for the murder of his employer, Ben Brooks. In a battle with the posse George wounded six men, probably fatally. [Source: The Crises, "Old Magazine Articles"]
COBB, James 23 May 1918 Cordele, Georgia James was hanged for the alleged murder of Mrs. Roy Simmons. [Source: The Crises, "Old Magazine Articles"]
COSBY, “Bud” 7 February 1918 Fayetteville, Georgia Bud was hanged for intent to rob and kidnapping. [Source: The Crises, "Old Magazine Articles"]
CRAWFORD, Anthony P. October 1916 Abbeville, South Carolina [Source: Men and Violence: Gender, Honor, and Rituals in Modern Europe and America, edited by Pieter Spierenburg]
CZERICH, Warren 3 September 1918 San Pedro, California Supposed crime: murder. [Source: The Crises, "Old Magazine Articles"]
DANSY, Ed. February 26, 1918 Willacoochee, Georgia Mr. Dansy was shot. He had killed two white officers and wounded three others. [Source: The Crises, "Old Magazine Articles"]
DAVIS, Dan 1912 - [Source: "American Lynching"]
DEVERT, Thomas 20 May 1918 Erwin, Tennessee Thomas was shot and burned for the alleged murder of a white girl. [Source: The Crises, "Old Magazine Articles"]
DUKES, Bill 15 August 1918 Nachez, Mississippi Bill was shot to death. [Source: The Crises, "Old Magazine Articles"]
EARLE, Willie abt 1947 Greenville, South Carolina [Source: Fire in a Canebrake]
EBERHART, Lee February 1921 Athens, Clarke County, Georgia [Source: "Bloody Injuries" by Professor Wilkes, University of Georgia]
EDWARDS, Sam 17 January 1918 Hazelhurst, Mississippi Sam was burned to death. He was charged with murder of Bera Willes, 17 year old white girl. [Source: The Crises, "Old Magazine Articles"]
ELDER, Claude 29 June 1905 Watkinsville, Oconee County, Georgia [Source: "Bloody Injuries" by Professor Wilkes, University of Georgia]
EVANS, Spencer 22 March 1918 Crawfordville, Georgia Spencer was hanged. He was convicted of criminal assault upon a colored woman at the February term of court and sentenced to be hanged, but a mob took him from jail and lynched him. [Source: The Crises, "Old Magazine Articles"]
FICARROTTA, Castenge 1910 Florida [Source: "American Lynching"]
FRANK, Leo 1915 Atlanta, Georgia Click here for more information. [Sources: The Encyclopedia of American Crime, "American Lynching"]
GILHAM, John 15 August 1918 Macon, Bibb County, Georgia John was hanged for an alleged attack on two white women. [Source: The Crises, "Old Magazine Articles"]
GILLENWATERS, Jimmy 1912 Bowling Green, Kentucky -
GOODMAN, Gus 4 November 1905 Bainbridge, Georgia [Source: "American Lynching"]
GOOLSIE, Kirby 4 June 1918 Beaumont, Texas Kirby was hanged for an alleged attack on a white girl. [Source: The Crises, "Old Magazine Articles"]
GOTO, Katsu 1889 Hanokaa, Hawaii [Source: "American Lynching"]
HALE, West 4 December 1921 Oconee County, Georgia [Source: "Bloody Injuries" by Professor Wilkes, University of Georgia]
HALL, “Bubber” 7 August 1918 Bastrop, Louisiana Bubber was hanged for an alleged attack on a white woman. [Source: The Crises, "Old Magazine Articles"]
HALL, Robert 1943 Baker County, Georgia Robert was beaten to death with a blackjack. [Source: Fire in a Canebrake]
HARDEMANN, Frank 16 October 1900 Wellston, Houston County, Georgia Supposed crime: assaulting Mrs. B. H. Pierson, the wife of a Baptist preacher. [Source: The New York Times; Article Transcription]
HARMON, Jim 1890 Walton County, Georgia Jim was shot to death for allegedly putting his hand on a white woman’s face while she slept; his body sunk to the bottom of a pond. [Source: Fire in a Canebrake]
HARRIS, Bob 29 June 1905 Watkinsville, Oconee County, Georgia [Source: "Bloody Injuries" by Professor Wilkes, University of Georgia]
HEAD, Will 17 May 1918 Valdosta, Georgia Will, along with Will Thompson, Hayes Turner, Mary Turner, Sydney Johnson, Eugene Rice, Chime Riley, Simon Schuman, and three unidentified negroes were hanged for alleged complicity in the murder of Hampton Smith. [Source: The Crises, "Old Magazine Articles"]
HICKORY, Richard June 1884 New Lexington, Ohio [Source: The Atlanta Constitution , Georgia, 18 Jun 1884]
HOSE, Sam 1899 Newnan / Atlanta, Georgia Sam was hung and burned to death. Afterwards, men came at him with knives. [Sources: Fire in a Canebrake, "American Lynching"]
HOUSE, Alma 21 December 1918 Shubuta, Mississippi Major Clarke and his brother Andrew, as well as Maggie and Alma House were hanged for the murder of Dr. E. L. Johnston. [Source: The Crises, "Old Magazine Articles"]
HOUSE, Maggie 21 December 1918 Shubuta, Mississippi Major Clarke and his brother Andrew, as well as Maggie and Alma House were hanged for the murder of Dr. E. L. Johnston. [Source: The Crises, "Old Magazine Articles"]
HUDSON, Jim 26 January 1918 Benton, Louisiana Jim was hanged for living with a white woman. [Source: The Crises, "Old Magazine Articles"]
JACKSON, Elmer June 1920 Duluth, Minnesota -
JACKSON, Henry 22 May 1918 Miami, Florida Henry was hanged for throwing a white man underneath a train. [Source: The Crises, "Old Magazine Articles"]
JENKINS, John 1851 San Francisco [Source: "American Lynching"]
JOHNSON, Ed 1906 Tennessee [Source: "American Lynching"]
JOHNSON, Henry abt December 1890 Central, Pickens County, South Carolina Supposed crime: “outrage” committed on white woman. [Source: The Atlanta Constitution , Georgia, 4 Dec 1890]
JOHNSON, Sydney 17 May 1918 Valdosta, Georgia Sydney, along with Will Head, Will Thompson, Hayes Turner, Mary Turner, Eugene Rice, Chime Riley, Simon Schuman, and three unidentified negroes were hanged for alleged complicity in the murder of Hampton Smith. [Source: The Crises, "Old Magazine Articles"]
JOINER, Saxe 1865 - [Source: "American Lynching"]
JONES, Jim 26 February 1918 Rayville, Louisiana Jim, along with Jim Lewis and Will Powell, were accused of stealing hogs. Two were hanged and one shot to death. One white man and one negro were killed in the exchange of shots. [Source: The Crises, "Old Magazine Articles"]
LEAPHEART, Mr. May 1890 Lexington, South Carolina [Source: The Atlanta Constitution , Georgia, 13 May 1890]
LEWIS, Charles 16 December 1918 Hickman, Kentucky Charles was hanged for allegedly beating Deputy Sheriff Thomas. [Source: The Crises, "Old Magazine Articles"]
LEWIS, Jim 26 February 1918 Rayville, Louisiana Jim, along with Jim Jones and Will Powell, were accused of stealing hogs. Two were hanged and one shot to death. One white man and one negro were killed in the exchange of shots. [Source: The Crises, "Old Magazine Articles"]
LOWE, George 4 December 1921 Oconee County, Georgia [Source: "Bloody Injuries" by Professor Wilkes, University of Georgia]
MAXWELL, Ed November 1881 Wisconsin The Atlanta Constitution , Georgia, 22 Nov 1881: “The Wisconsin mob seems to have a penchant for anticipating the law just as well developed as if it were located in Louisiana. The lynching of Ed. Maxwell was neatly and expeditiously accomplished.”
MCGHIE, Isaac June 1920 Duluth, Minnesota -
MCGILL, L. 29 June 1918 Madill, Oklahoma McGill was hanged for an alleged attack upon a white woman. [Source: The Crises, "Old Magazine Articles"]
MCGOWAN, Wilder November 1938 Wiggins, Mississippi Wilder was hanged for the rape and robbery of a 74 year old white woman. [Source: Men and Violence: Gender, Honor, and Rituals in Modern Europe and America, edited by Pieter Spierenburg]
MCILLHERON, Jim 12 February 1918 Estill Springs, Tennessee Jim was burned. He was accused of shooting to death two white men. G. W. Lych, who hid McIllheron, was shot to death. [Source: The Crises, "Old Magazine Articles"]
MCMANUS, Frank 1882 Minneapolis [Source: "American Lynching"]
MCNEEL, Georgia 16 March 1918 Monroe, Louisiana Georgia and John Richards were hanged for an alleged attack upon a white woman. [Source: The Crises, "Old Magazine Articles"]
MCTATIE, Leon 30 July 1945 Lexington, Mississippi Leon was flogged to death for allegedly stealing a saddle. [Source: Fire in a Canebrake]
MITCHELL, Allen 18 June 1918 Earle, Arkansas Allen was hanged for wounding Mrs. W. M. Langston. [Source: The Crises, "Old Magazine Articles"]
MORALES, David Rivas 19 Jun 2007 Austin, Texas An angry crowd beat a man to death after a vehicle he was riding in struck and injured a young girl…The little girl was taken to a hospital with non-life threatening injuries.
MORGAN, Dudley 22 May 1902 Longview, Gregg County, Texas Dudley was tortured and burned alive at a stake. He was accused of physically assaulting a white woman.
NEAL, Claude 1934 Jackson County, Florida -
NOYES, Berry 22 April 1918 Lexington, Kentucky Berry was hanged for the murder of Sheriff W. E. McBride. [Source: The Crises, "Old Magazine Articles"]
O’NEAL, Obe 18 September 1918 Buff Lake, Texas Supposed crime: shot and wounded a white man. [Source: The Crises, "Old Magazine Articles"]
PARKER, Mack Charles 1959 Poplarville, Mississippi [Source: "American Lynching"]
PERSON, Ell May 1917 Memphis, Tennessee [Source: "Tennessee Encyclopedia"]
POPE, Henry abt May 1888 Summerville, Chattooga County, Georgia Henry was tried and convicted of rape, but was granted a respite by Gov. Gordon. Apparently, this did not sit well with some people. Henry was lynched. [Source: The Atlanta Constitution , Georgia, 2 May 1888]
POWELL, Will 26 February 1918 Rayville, Louisiana Will, along with Jim Lewis and Jim Jones, were accused of stealing hogs. Two were hanged and one shot to death. One white man and one negro were killed in the exchange of shots. [Source: The Crises, "Old Magazine Articles"]
PRAEGER, Robert P. 4 April 1918 Collinsville, Illinois Robert was hanged. He was accused of making disloyal remarks. [Source: The Crises, "Old Magazine Articles"]
PRICE, Sandy 29 June 1905 Watkinsville, Oconee County, Georgia [Source: "Bloody Injuries" by Professor Wilkes, University of Georgia]
PUCKETT, Richard 1913 Laurens, South Carolina -
RADNEY, Ike 11 August 1918 Colquit, Georgia [Source: The Crises, "Old Magazine Articles"]
REEVES, Sandy 24 September 1918 Waycross, Georgia Sandy was hanged for an alleged assault on a white girl. [Source: The Crises, "Old Magazine Articles"]
RICE, Eugene 17 May 1918 Valdosta, Georgia Eugene, along with Will Head, Will Thompson, Hayes Turner, Mary Turner, Sydney Johnson, Chime Riley, Simon Schuman, and three unidentified negroes were hanged for alleged complicity in the murder of Hampton Smith. [Source: The Crises, "Old Magazine Articles"]
RICHARDS, John 16 March 1918 Monroe, Louisiana John and George McNeel were hanged for an alleged attack upon a white woman. [Source: The Crises, "Old Magazine Articles"]
RILEY, Chime 17 May 1918 Valdosta, Georgia Chime, along with Will Head, Will Thompson, Hayes Turner, Mary Turner, Sydney Johnson, Eugene Rice, Simon Schuman, and three unidentified negroes were hanged for alleged complicity in the murder of Hampton Smith. [Source: The Crises, "Old Magazine Articles"]
ROBINSON, Lewis 29 June 1905 Watkinsville, Oconee County, Georgia [Source: "Bloody Injuries" by Professor Wilkes, University of Georgia]
ROBINSON, Rich 29 June 1905 Watkinsville, Oconee County, Georgia [Source: "Bloody Injuries" by Professor Wilkes, University of Georgia]
ROBINSON, Willis 18 December 1918 Newport, Arkansas Willis was hanged for the murder of Patrolman Charles Williams. [Source: The Crises, "Old Magazine Articles"]
RODRIGUEZ, Antonio 1910 Rock Springs, Texas [Source: "American Lynching"]
SCHUMAN, Simon 17 May 1918 Valdosta, Georgia Simon, along with Will Head, Will Thompson, Hayes Turner, Mary Turner, Sydney Johnson, Eugene Rice, Chime Riley, and three unidentified negroes were hanged for alleged complicity in the murder of Hampton Smith. [Source: The Crises, "Old Magazine Articles"]
SHIPMAN, Charles 14 November 1918 Fort Bend County, Texas Supposed crime: disagreement with landowner. [Source: The Crises, "Old Magazine Articles"]
SHIPP, Thomas 7 August 1930 Marion, Indiana [Source: "American Lynching"]
SHORTER, William June 1893 Virginia Supposed crime: Attempted rape upon Mrs. Clevenger. [Source: The Atlanta Constitution , Georgia, 14 June 1893]
SINGLETON, Claud 20 April 1918 Poplarville, Mississippi Claud was hanged. He was accused of murdering a white man, and he had been sentenced to life imprisonment. [Source: The Crises, "Old Magazine Articles"]
SMITH, Abram 7 August 1930 Marion, Indiana [Source: "American Lynching"]
SMITH, Henry 1893 Paris, Texas [Source: "American Lynching"]
STACY, Rubin 19 July 1935 Ft. Lauderdale, Florida [Source: "American Lynching"]
SULLIVAN, William 23 May 1893 Corunna, Michigan Supposed crime: Murder of Layton Leech. [Source: The Atlanta Constitution , Georgia, 25 May 1893. Article Transcript]
TAYLOR, George 5 November 1918 Rolesville, North Carolina George was hanged for rape. [Source: The Crises, "Old Magazine Articles"]
THOMPSON, Allie 24 November 1918 Culpepper, Virginia Supposed crime: assaulting a white woman. [Source: The Crises, "Old Magazine Articles"]
THOMPSON, Will 17 May 1918 Valdosta, Georgia Will, along with Will Head, Hayes Turner, Mary Turner, Sydney Johnson, Eugene Rice, Chime Riley, Simon Schuman, and three unidentified negroes were hanged for alleged complicity in the murder of Hampton Smith. [Source: The Crises, "Old Magazine Articles"]
TILL, Emmett 1955 Greenwood, Mississippi [Source: "American Lynching"]
TURLEY, John May 1893 Bedford, Indiana Supposed crime: Murder of Conductor L. F. Price. [Source: The Atlanta Constitution , Georgia, 16 May 1893]
TURNER, Hayes 17 May 1918 Valdosta, Georgia Hayes, along with Will Head, Will Thompson, Mary Turner, Sydney Johnson, Eugene Rice, Chime Riley, Simon Schuman, and three unidentified negroes were hanged for alleged complicity in the murder of Hampton Smith. [Source: The Crises, "Old Magazine Articles"]
TURNER, Mary 17 May 1918 Valdosta, Georgia Mary, along with Will Head, Will Thompson, Hayes Turner, Sydney Johnson, Eugene Rice, Chime Riley, Simon Schuman, and three unidentified negroes were hanged for alleged complicity in the murder of Hampton Smith. [Source: The Crises, "Old Magazine Articles"]
VALENTINE, Edward 4 June 1918 Sanderson, Texas Supposed crime: murder. [Source: The Crises, "Old Magazine Articles"]
VINSON, William 13 July 1942 Texarkana, Texas [Source: Handbook of Texas Online]
WALKER, Henry 24 November 1879 Fort Valley, Georgia [Source: Georgia Black Book: Morbid, Macabre and Disgusting Records of Genealogical Value]
WALKER, Zachariah 1911 Coatesville, Pennsylvania [Source: "American Lynching"]
WAGNER, Frederick 28 August 1918 Hot Springs, Arkansas Supposed crime: disloyal utterances. [Source: The Crises, "Old Magazine Articles"]
WASH, Howard 1943 Laurel, Mississippi [Source: Fire in a Canebrake]
WASHINGTON, Jesse 1916 Waco, Texas [Source: "American Lynching"]
WATTS, Joe June 1911 Monroe, Walton County, Georgia A mob of men hung Joe from a tree and shot him. [Source: Fire in a Canebrake]
WHITESIDE, George 11 November 1918 Sheffield, Alabama George was hanged. He was charged with the murder of a policeman. [Source: The Crises, "Old Magazine Articles"]
WILLIAMS, Clyde 22 April 1918 Monroe, Louisiana Clyde was hanged for shooting C. L. Thomas, a Missouri-Pacific station agent at Fawndale. [Source: The Crises, "Old Magazine Articles"]
WOMACK, John 22 May 1918 Red Level, Arkansas John was shot for an alleged assault on a white woman. [Source: The Crises, "Old Magazine Articles"]
WOODSON, Edward 10 December 1918 Green River, Wyoming Edward was charged with killing a railroad switchman. [Source: The Crises, "Old Magazine Articles"]
WRIGHT, Cleo 1942 Sikeston, Missouri Cleo’s feet were tied to the back of a car, and he was drug through the city streets. Finally, he was burned to death. [Sources: Fire in a Canebrake, "American Lynching"]
YERBY, Gene 29 June 1905 Watkinsville, Oconee County, Georgia [Source: "Bloody Injuries" by Professor Wilkes, University of Georgia]
 
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Black Victims of White Lynch Mobs by State, 1882-1930
 
 
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BLACK LYNCHING VICTIMS (1865-1965): “THE LYNCHING CALENDAR”
 
 
THE CENTURY OF LYNCHING 1865 – 1965
 

NAMES OF THE DEAD
A-L
M-Z

DATES OF DEATH BY YEAR
1865-1899
1900-1939
1940-1965

DATES OF DEATH BY DAYS
January-June
July-December

PLACES OF DEATH BY STATES
Alabama to Louisiana
Maryland to Wyoming


This site is dedicated to all the men, women and children that suffered these atrocities. May they never be forgotten.

From 1865 to 1965 more than 6,000 African-Americans died in racial violence in the United States.

This inventory includes the names of 2,400 of the African-Americans who were lynched in the United States from 1865 to 1965.

The inventory is necessarily incomplete. Records are scant. Newspaper reports are scattered. The Tuskegee Institute Lynching Inventory began in 1882 — just before the great surge of lynchings that occurred around the turn of the century — a surge that accompanied the American conquest of the Philippines, defeating the colored fighters of the Philippine War of Independence, called by Anglo-American historians “The Philippine Insurrection.”

This inventory is offered in the spirit of healing and reconciliation, for until the wounds of the Lynching Century are healed there is little chance of reducing the ever so pervasive racism in the United States, as Ida B. Wells put it: The Land of the Free and the Home of the Brave.

Americans have a long way to go to see full realization of the promises of the Pledge of Allegiance, to see America as a land with Liberty and Justice for All instead of liberty and justice for the white Anglo-Saxon economic elite.

Links

 Here is a partial list from The Lynching Calendar site of lynched victims from the year 1911:

1911

1 unidentified black woman and her 3 children murdered Rayne Louisiana January 1911

45 unidentified blacks murdered Rayne Louisiana January 1911

1 unidentified black man murdered Benton Arkansas January 14 1911

Gene Marshall lynched Shelbyville Kentucky January 15 1911

Wade Patterson lynched Shelbyville Kentucky January 15 1911

James West lynched Shelbyville Kentucky January 15 1911

Oval Poulson lynched Opelousas Louisiana January 20 1911

William Johnson lynched N/A Georgia January 22 1911

Iver Peterson lynched Eufala Alabama February 12 1911

Robert Jones lynched Augusta Georgia February 25 1911

John Vease lynched Augusta Georgia February 25 1911

3 members of Crowley family murdered Crowley Louisiana February 1911

4 members unidentified black family murdered Lafayette Louisiana March 1911

Galvin Baker lynched Marianna Florida March 5 1911

5 members of Cassaway family murdered San Antonio Texas April 1911

1 unidentified black man lynched Union Springs Alabama April 2 1911

Charles Hale lynched Lawrenceville Georgia April 7 1911

Dawson Jordan lynched Ellaville Georgia April 8 1911

Charles Pickett lynched Ellaville Georgia April 8 1911

Murray Burton lynched Ellaville Georgia April 8 1911

William Potter lynched Livermore Kentucky April 21 1911

John McLeod lynched Swainsboro Georgia May 18 1911

N/A Norris lynched Lake City Florida May 21 1911

5 unidentified black men lynched Lake City Florida May 21 1911

Benjamin Smith lynched Swainsboro Georgia May 21 1911

Joseph Moore lynched Crawfordsville Georgia May 22 1911

1 unidentified black woman and her son age 15 lynched Okemah Oklahoma May 25 1911 (Laura Nelson and her son, L.D.)

James Sweet lynched Gallatin Tennessee May 25 1911

Patrick Crump lynched White Haven Tennessee June 1 1911

John Winston lynched Lafayette Tennessee June 8 1911

William Bradford lynched Chunky Mississippi June 16 1911

Thomas Allen lynched Monroe Georgia June 30 1911

Foser Watts lynched Monroe Georgia June 30 1911

William McGroff lynched Baconton Georgia July 11 1911

Miles Taylor lynched Claibourne Par Louisiana July 24 1911

Samuel Verge lynched Demopolis Alabama August 4 1911

“Commodore” Jones lynched Farmersville Texas August 12 1911

Zacariah Walker lynched Coatesville Pennsylvania August 13 1911

1 unidentified black man lynched Durant Oklahoma August 18 1911

Peter Carter lynched Purcell Oklahoma August 24 1911

Peter Davis lynched Ft. Gaines Georgia August 29 1911

1 unidentified black man lynched Clayton Alabama August 30 1911

Arthur Dean lynched Augusta Arkansas September 9 1911

Walter Byrd lynched Winnsboro Louisiana September 15 1911

1 unidentified black man lynched Dublin Georgia October 5 1911

Willis Jackson lynched Greenville S. Carolina October 10 1911

Andrew Chapwan lynched N/A Georgia October 11 1911

A.B. Richardson lynched Caruthersville Missouri October 11 1911

Benjamin Woods lynched Caruthersville Missouri October 11 1911

Nathan Lucy lynched Forrest City Arkansas October 16 1911

Terry Lovelace lynched Manchester Georgia October 19 1911

Charles Lewis lynched Hope Arkansas October 20 1911

Edward Suddeth lynched Corneta Oklahoma October 22 1911

T. W. Walker lynched Washington Georgia October 28 1911

1 unidentified black man lynched Marshall Texas October 29 1911

Honea Path lynched Anderson S. Carolina November 1911

“Judge” Moseley lynched Lockhart Mississippi November 7 1911

William Nixon lynched Delhi Louisiana November 8 1911

Riley Johnson lynched Clarksville Texas November 8 1911

Norbert Randall murdered Lafayette Louisiana November 26 1911

2 unidentified black men murdered Mannford Oklahoma December 3 1911

Bud Walker lynched Mannford Oklahoma December 3 1911

Ben Pettigrew and 2 daughters lynched Clifton Tennessee December 6 1911

John Warren lynched Donald Georgia December 21 1911

King Davis lynched Brooklyn Maryland December 25 1911

The Reasons Given for Black Lynchings

  • Acting suspiciously
  • Gambling
  • Quarreling
  • Adultery
  • Grave robbing
  • Race hatred; Race troubles
  • Aiding murderer
  • Improper with white woman
  • Rape
  • Arguing with white man
  • Incest
  • Rape-murders
  • Arson Inciting to riot
  • Resisting mob
  • Assassination
  • Inciting trouble
  • Robbery
  • Attempted murder
  • Indolence
  • Running a bordello
  • Banditry
  • Inflammatory language
  • Sedition
  • Being disreputable
  • Informing
  • Slander
  • Being obnoxious
  • Injuring livestock
  • Spreading disease

(Post revised on April 28, 2010)

44 Comments

Filed under Uncategorized

44 responses to “CENTER FOR CIVIL AND HUMAN RIGHTS: LYNCHING POSTCARDS OF INHUMANITY EXHIBIT: JANUARY, 2011

  1. Lena Haber

    Thank you for this website. Although it is sometimes shocking and painful to view, I think it is important for people to see this website. I’ll be including the link to this site on my emails for a while. Maybe it will help people understand better.

  2. raymond crumer

    praeger, lynched in collinsville,illinois was not black,I wonder how many others were not.

  3. raymond crumer

    praeger lynched in collinsville,ill was not black

    • Ann

      Yes, Praeger, a man of German descent, was not Black.

      Neither was Leo Frank, a Jew who was lynched.

      If you read the line above the list of murdered victims, I did state the following:

      “Here is a partial list of known murdered lynch martyrs.”

      That the majority of the murdered were Black does not negate the few who were murdered who were not Black.

    • George

      It’s important to remember that not all white people were in fact ‘White’. People who were not clearly English were also cast into subjection and prejudice. This includes Irish peoples, Germans, Jews, Italians, so on and so forth. Modern society often loses sight of the fact that racism included a racism against nationality. White skin does not make you White.

  4. La Reyna

    Mr. Crumer,

    I understand that a few Whites were lynched in the late 1800s and 1900s but the issue is the fact that so many Blacks were lynched because they were challenging White supremacy, false accusations of rape by White women, for competing with Whites economically and politically, and for defending Black women’s honor in a society that still don’t respect Black women.

    Let’s not derail the topic at hand, i.e. the horrible lynchings of Blacks.

    La Reyna

    • raymond crumer

      Being biracial 1954 born and raised in collinsville,illinois, I always was told that tree was where” they killed us” made it impossible for me not to share my veiw, actually it took this for me to use my computer

      • Ann

        Raymond, thank you for your comments and thank you for your information on Collinsville, Ill.

        It is very painful—-the legacy of America’s vicious race hatred, but, the more it is talked about, the more the truth will be revealed and brought to light.

        Please stop by when ever you can.

        The computer, like knowledge, can be a most powerful weapon of the truth.

    • raymond crumer

      being born and raised in collinsville,illinois,I know the tree. Society has no means to respect, The matriarchal societies revere all women, as it should be, unfortunately our society doesnt .I understand biggotry , I was taken away at birth in 1954 because my father was black, my birth certificate has my fathers name as “NEGRO” Knowledge is power

  5. My comment is stylistic. I think the post is well done, but the “falling snow” effect makes it very unpleasant to read (not for content, but for the pure act of reading).

    • Ann

      @ Terry.

      “I think the post is well done….”

      Thank you.

      “…..but the “falling snow” effect makes it very unpleasant to read (not for content, but for the pure act of reading).”

      Yes….the falling snow.

      I like it because where I live, it practically snows only one day out of the year, so, when WordPress starts up the “snow” on the day after Thanksgiving, I am looking forward to it.

      Try to bear with it.

      It will end after Jan. 4, 2010.

  6. My understanding is that most blacks were not hung for anything they “did,” such as challenging white supremacy, defending black women’s honor, etc. I thought that generally, blacks were hung simply because they existed; they could be falsely accused of almost anything, even looking at a white person “wrong,” and end up hung for it. But they were not–again, in general–speaking out in defense of what was right, or challenging anybody or anything. They were frightened and oppressed, keeping their heads down and praying for themselves and those they loved to stay alive. There were no social/political “mistakes” or grand acts of defiance that got them murdered. Did anybody really have to even make a good, solid case to get a black person hung? I do not think it was like that. However, if I may be mistaken, I am always open to learning.

    • Ann

      Lena, most Blacks were hung just for the fact that they were Black; some were murdered because they spoke out against White racial hatred.

      It was a combination of both. Prominent Blacks who were prosperous were major targets by Whites, because those Black citizens went against the racist beliefs that Blacks could not be industrious, responsible and intelligent.

      The great Ida Wells-Barnett, crusader against lynchings, lost three of her best friends to lynchers because they, the Black men, ran their grocery store so well, that the White merchants could not stand the competition. The White merchants stirred up lies against the three men, had them lynched, and raided and destroyed the store of the lynched Black men.

      Other Blacks raised their voices against racial hate. In the following excerpts, Blacks who stood, and Blacks who could not, died. I left some of the newspapers lower case spellings of the word “Negro”, intact.

      The following are Blacks who spoke out against White’s racial hatred against Black people:

      “ST. LOUIS ARGUS
      June 15, 1923

      OUTSPOKEN NEGRO KILLED

      PALM BEACH, Fla., June 13—The body of Henry Simmons, Negro, riddled with bullets, was found today hanging to a tree on Palm Beach Island. Simmons was a native of the Bahama Islands. He is said to have been an industrious and conscientious worker at a local ice cream plant but he also made enemies because he was outspoken on the treatment of American Negroes by Southern whites.”

      excerpt from, “100 Years of Lynchings,” pg. 170.

      “MARY TURNER In May, 1918, a white plantation owner in Brooks County, Georgia, got into a quarrel with one of his colored tenants and the tenant killed him. A mob sought to avenge his death but could not find the suspected man. They therefore lynched another colored man named Hayes Turner. His wife, Mary Turner, threatened to have members of the mob arrested. The mob therefore started after her. She fled from home and was found there the next morning. She was in the eighth month of pregnancy but the mob of several hundred took her to a small stream, tied her ankles together and hung her on a tree head downwards. Gasoline was thrown on her clothes and she was set on fire. One of the members of the mob took a knife and split her abdomen open so that the unborn child fell from her womb to the ground and the child’s head was crushed under the heel of another member of the mob; Mary Turner’s body was finally riddled with bullets.TULSA”

      The following example of Black people murdered just because they were Black:

      “On Greenwood Avenue in the colored section of Tulsa, Oklahoma, two aged colored people, a man and his wife, lived. On the night of the Tulsa riot, May 31, 1921, a mob broke into the home and shot both the woman and her husband from behind. The home was then set on fire.”

      From my post, “At the Hands of Persons Unknown” http://kathmanduk2.wordpress.com/2007/08/13/at-the-hands-of-persons-unknown/

      And as you stated, there were Black people who were murdered just for the reason that they were Black, even if their crime was in no way a crime:

      NEW YORK GLOBE
      July 25, 1917

      2 HUNG FOR JOSTLING HORSE

      MONTGOMERY, Ala., July 25—Will and Jesse Powell, negroes who were arrested here to-day on a charge of threatening the life of a white farmer and his negro helper, were to-night taken by a mob from deputies in Lowndes county and lynched to a nearby tree.

      The trouble is said to have arisen when the negroes brushed against the farmer’s horse.”

      excerpt from, “100 Years of Lynchings,” by Ralph Ginzburg, Black Classic Press, 1962, 1988, pg. 112.

      • Lena H.

        Oh my God….your post made me cry. And I wanted to throw up. How can such things have happened? How can people be so horrible to one another? How do people with such atrocities in their ancestral memory deal with the things that happened? And, as awful as those things were, thank God for this website where such things are openly revealed and discussed. It helps us all become better, I think. I hope so.

  7. Gregg Jennings

    Thank you for your website.
    I wrote a book review in college some time ago for an interesting book on the subject. I cannot recall the name, (“Lynching in the New South”, I think)but, it was about the differences between lynchings in Georgia compared to lynchings in Virginia. The notable difference, was Virginia had the fewest number of lynchings of any state in the study. If I remember, most Northern states had more lynchings. Georgia had the most. The authors conclusion was that in Virginia, ex-Confederate leaders lead the way in race relation reconciliation and NOT the carpetbaggers and Union officials as what happened in Georgia and the lower Southern states. General Mosby and a few others got the most mention and Mosby appointed African-Americans to post without the federal government telling him. Virginia had the most fighting, but there was little bitterness. In Georgia, the bitterness was substantial and caused mostly by Sherman’s raid and the large number of carpetbaggers that arrived after the war. Governor Joseph Brown did not help either, but he was the governor during the war. Also, newspapers also kept reporting lynchings and if a future one was thought to occur they would even advertise for it to increase circulation thereby adding fuel to the fire. The newspapers also reported on black uprisings that were not occuring. I remember reading of one from 1896 Pensacola stating the cities of Atlanta, Selma and Montgomery had been taken by “armed negroes”. I do not know what was occuring at the time, maybe there was something. And in the same newspaper they advertise a popular play coming to Pensacola, called, “The Klansman”. I don’t know if it was a musical. Citizens were writing it and the vast majority were writing they did not want the play in their town because they knew it would cause trouble. The 1890’s were certainly the most violent time in America (besides the WBTS), but this was the first generation born after that conflict. Something off subject, doing my own family history I have found that prior to 1865, members of my family in the census list their family members in the household and “3 free persons of color”. This was such a bizarre to thing to read as it was unexpected and from more research I found that it was common in many Southern states for blacks and white to live and work together, but after 1865 this suddenly changed. The terrible sharecropper policies were adopted which caused an almost complete seperation of the races and I wonder if that time separated caused the 1890-1900’s to become so turbulent. Sorry, I wrote a lot, and am at work and must go. Anyway, thanks for the post.

  8. Chuck B

    This site is essential. Prejudice, bigotry, and xenophobic violence persist, though the targets may evolve over time.

    As for those who might recognize a friend or relative, or themselves: their discomfort or shame is *nothing* compared to the atrocities committed, witnessed, and indulged.

    We need constant awareness of how easily emotional agitation and the “us/them” irrationality can flash into violence. Think of Balbir Singh Sodhi, four days after 9/11; Matthew Shepard; James Byrd, Jr., and Brandon McLelland.

  9. Pingback: How This Custody Case Reminds Me Of Civil Rights Opponents « Soliloquies of A Stranger

  10. Janet Messner

    I would like to point out that my grgrandfather, Edgar Rice was the innocent in the lynching in Coatesville, Pa in 1911 and Zachariah Walker was a drunken thug who went out looking for trouble. After spending the day drinking he went home and got his gun in order to cause trouble and rob a few hunkeys [Hungarians who lived in the area he killed my grgrandfather]. He not only tried to rob some men, he then resisted arrest by my grgrandfather Ed, and after getting the drop on him with his pistol not only shot him, but deliberately killed him by shooting him in the back and the back of the head. The coward then feld and when confronted by a posse he tried to commit suicide. His deather was method was wrong, but by no means was it unjustified. He admitted to the murder of Edgar Rice and bragged in the hospital that he had been faster at the draw of the gun. He was hardly a martyr or civil rights leader. He was a drunken punk looking for trouble and his death was deserved, although burning alive was not the method the law would have choosen. He was not killed because he was black, he was killed because he was a murdering cowardly drunken thug who deliberately went and got his gun after drinking all day. Shame on you for trying to make him out something he was not.

    • Ann

      “Shame on you for trying to make him out something he was not.”

      Shame on me for including a list of lynch victims? If you have a problem with the list I posted, you will have to take that up with the owner of the site I obtained the list from.

      As for what you stated, please present evidence that Zachariah Walker did not kill Edgar Rice in self-defense.

      Per the site, “American Lynchings”:

      “When Walker awoke at the hospital, he confessed to the killing of Edgar Rice in self-defense.

      “The mob’s leaders dragged Walker half a mile, stopping in a clearing bordered by split-rail fences just beyond the Newlin farmhouse. It made a good theater, and the all-white crowd — now nearly four thousand strong — poured up from the road to take their places. As men ran back and forth from the barn with dry straw and firewood, Walker shouted from the fence railing: “For God’s sake, give a man a chance! I killed Rice in self-defense. Don’t give me no crooked death because I ain’t white!” But the fire was soon blazing up, illuminating the faces not only of men but also of women and children, who had been drawn by the commotion on the way home from church.

      The following day, the Coatesville Record remarked on the politeness of the crowd: “Five thousand men, women, and children stood by and watched the proceedings as though it were a ball game or another variety of spectator sport.” Boys had stopped for cold soda afterward at the Coatesville Candy Company to retell the story. Many returned to the site the next day to gather fragments of bone and charred flesh as souvenirs.”

      SOURCE: http://www.americanlynching.com/infamous-old.html

      I am always open to information concerning lynching in America, and as you did come on my blog and state that Walker was a murderer of Edgar Rice, I would appreciate evidence from you that backs up what you state.

      Thank you.

      If Walker is guilty of killing your grandfather, that in no way absolves the White lynch mob of murdering Zachariah Walker.

      • Lena H.

        <>

        Exactly! No matter what anyone does — and nobody is disputing that there are criminals among every race — everyone deserves to be protected equally under the law. So even if Walker was a murderer, he should have been given the benefit of a fair trial and, if found guilty, sentenced to the same sort of punishment that a white person would have received.

    • kelvin

      There is no reason to kill another human being,even if he was drunk .athug or murdere,only god has that right.Murder is murder no matter what.

    • kelvin

      He might of had his reasons to be drunk or to act like a thug in your eyes but unless you were there who nows.People tell you only what they want you to hear.

  11. Janet Messner

    Zachariah Walker did not kill Edgar Rice in ‘self defence’. Ed was a deputy of the local police force and was a special officer of the mill policemen. Since 1868, Pennsylvania companies had the right under state law to hire their own private police forces, which had enforced the will of the companies. Pinkerton police are one prime example. Zach Walker was being placed under arrest, resisted and killed Ed Rice while Rice was performing his duty as an officer. Zach Walker was a trouble maker, his sister lived in Williamsport at the time. Walker had lived there and got in one fight after another with other negros there. He kicked one nearly to death in a fight over a card game and left for VA. He was a mean drunk is what the newspaper accounts from Williamsport said. He fled to GA where his brother was but then went to Va and finally back to PA. I am not justify what the crowd did. But I know why they did it. He killed Ed Rice, he admitted it and even bragged on his fast draw. This was not a bar room brawl. When you are being placed under arrest, pulling a gun on the officer is not self defence. Walker admitted to the crime, and in his drunken etherized state justified it with the self defense line. He is a poor excuse as a martyr, his only claim to that title is his death, his life lead him to his death. And now the black cause has mismanaged his death to make him look like an innocent, he was not. Today we take the family of a slain person through court after court after court. In Knoxville, TN right now two white kids were carjacked, tortured, raped, murdered and mutilated. Their familys have sat through 4 or 5 trails already looking at pictures of their mutilated kids. And the people responsible will appeal and it will continue. So, now we make the family of the victims suffer over and over again. I do not think this is justified either. Physical torment does not trump mental torment. My grgrandmother was calm after Ed was ‘avenged’. For people like the parents in Knoxville, they will never feel that calm. Justice has come full circle and I think people are sick of criminals getting away with murder.

    • Ann

      Janet Messner:

      You have devolved into sock puppet behaviour.

      You come to my site with accusations that Walker killed Rice. I asked you for evidence—–you provide none.

      You bring up an old case (the “Knoxville case”) trolling my blogsite.

      You post under 2 different e-mails of the same IP address.

      You have torn to shreds what little credibility you had.

      Since you came to my blog, you have made accusations with no evidence to back up what you stated, you committed trollish acts of sock-puppetry, and dredged up a four-year-old case to try and wring sympathy which is disgraceful.

      You are now banned.

  12. Lena H.

    I feel confused as to the point of Ms. Messner’s posts. Do we not all agree that, regardless of what crimes were or were not committed, that if Mr. Walker had been white, he would not have been killed in so horrid, vile, and cruel a manner? NOBODY deserves to die like he did. It was an atrocity, like the death camps in Germany were atrocities. I am upset at the way Ms. Messner has carried on. I am glad that she was banned. I think that was fair. I cannot help but believe that if it were a white man who had been killed in such an awful way, everybody would be quickly agreeing that it was wrong.
    Just last week, my son was a member of a jury. It was an all-white jury. They convicted a black man of shooting a woman. A juror said, of the black man, “Well, you see how he looks, he’s nothing but a gang-banger and even if he didn’t do this crime, he must have done others, and he belongs in prison.” My son was the only one who fought–and fought, and fought–for the rights of the accused but nobody would listen to my son because, in their words, he was “only 19, and didn’t have the “life experience” to judge the case. And what is that “life experience” that the other jurors brought to the case? THEIR PREJUDICE against Blacks. Pure and simple.
    I called the accused man’s lawyer and told him what had gone on in the jury, that they convicted the guy because they thought he was probably a gang member. The lawyer–a white guy, go figure–didn’t care. Case closed. This kind of stuff happens all the time, and it is the reason people like Ms. Messner frazzle me so much. They just don’t SEE. Prejudice is right there, it is impossible not to know it’s still there, but people …. oh, forget it. Sorry to rant. I don’t mean to be a pain.

    • Ann

      You stated that your son was the lone holdout on the jury (” ‘My son was the only one who fought–and fought, and fought–for the rights of the accused but nobody would listen to my son because, in their words, he was “only 19, and didn’t have the “life experience” to judge the case.’ “)

      But, the defendant was still convicted on non-evidence (” ‘Well, you see how he looks, he’s nothing but a gang-banger and even if he didn’t do this crime, he must have done others, and he belongs in prison.’ “). This description you stated of your son being a holdout created a situation that is commonly called a hung jury.

      A “hung jury”—is when a jury is deadlocked with no hope of coming to an agreement—-which is grounds for a mistrial. In the case of the trial you described with the racist jurors making racist statements, misconduct occurred that prevented a fair trial.

      MISTRIAL:

      A mistrial is the termination of a trial before its natural conclusion because of a procedural error, statements by a witness, judge or attorney which prejudice a jury, a deadlock by a jury without reaching a verdict after lengthy deliberation (a “hung” jury), or the failure to complete a trial within the time set by the court. A mistrial may be declared by the judge on his/her own initiative or upon the motion (request) of one of the parties will “declare a mistrial’. If a mistrial is declared, the jury, if there is one, is dismissed, and direct that the lawsuit or criminal prosecution be set for trial again, starting from the beginning by selecting a jury.

      Some of the reasons that may form the basis for a mistrial include:

      A significant procedural error
      Because it is discovered that a court lacks jurisdiction over a case
      Jurors were selected improperly
      Misconduct that prevents a fair trial

      How did the jury convict with one lone holdout (your son)? How did it go from being a hung jury to a unaninmous decision?

      A deadlocked jury cannot convict; there must be a unanimous decision of all the jurors, to convict, based on the evidence.

      Convictions must provide a conclusion based on evidence, beyond a reasonable doubt.

      So, how did the jury convict when from what you describe, it was a hung jury? If anything, the jury committed misconduct that would have caused a mistrial.

      As for the defense lawyer (” ‘The lawyer–a white guy, go figure–didn’t care. Case closed’ “)—was he a public defender?

      “This kind of stuff happens all the time, and it is the reason people like Ms. Messner frazzle me so much. They just don’t SEE. Prejudice is right there, it is impossible not to know it’s still there….”

      Oh, but, they do.

      They do see it.

      They see it all the time, else, statements such as the following would have not been uttered:

      ‘Well, you see how he looks, he’s nothing but a gang-banger and even if he didn’t do this crime, he must have done others, and he belongs in prison.’

  13. Ann

    Claudia Wallace.

    Read my “Comment Moderation Policy.”

    Anymore attempt to not stay on topic, and I will not allow anymore of your comments to go through.

  14. Samantha

    Hello,
    I am a seventh grade student at chisago lakes middle school and am doing my 2010-2011 History Day project on the duluth lynichings if you have any articles, documents you could send me with information about my topic that would be great thank you,
    sincerely: samantha

  15. Angel

    The sad thing is they were lynched for valid or possibly invalid reasons. Those were the times back then.
    Now days the same total numbers of Black dead are seen each month in the morgues of our cities. Black on Black murder is responsible and is far worse than it ever was in Jim Crow days. Sniveling liberals and Democrats are responsible for destroying the Black family unit. They are responsible for the huge number of present day Black murder and other crime. It is heinous and criminal what leftist elite liberals have done to the Black population of America.

    • Thomas Sullivan, MD

      Angel,
      A bold and brave stance!, I’m surprised you were not verbally attacked. I personally agree with you in every way. My grandfather was an uneducated Irishman, and raced his family in Detroit. my father migrated to SC and I was born in the 1950s South. Prejudice was ingrained in us as a “sin” against God’s “Children”. My father was a man before his time, stressing ” You are better than no one, and no one is better than you”. It is a cornerstone of my beliefs.
      I did witness the previous era and am sadden at the breakdown of the Black Family unit. In my youth I worked side-by-side with Black Men, proud of their Faith, Family, and Freedom to pursue a strong work ethic! It was the Black Man whom I associated most with my bleak Irish Catholic heritage, now free to work HARD and HONEST to create a life better for your family. i would eat exactly what they ate on the road crews, and chuckle at the terms of endearment they would create for me. On Sunday, the country roads were crowded with large congregations of country AME and Baptist Churches, dresses splendidly in their “Sunday Best”.
      I was welcomed in any cultural event and we shared our passion for music, sports, heritage, and work (accomplishment). Your comments on the systematic destruction of the Black family unit is criminal! They need and have The Right at a piece of The American Pie. As for the mass immigration of uneducated, impoverish Irish (Celtic Race), The Jewish Immigrants, and some many others – they deserve the OPPORTUNITY and FREEDOM to build their lives in a more favorable direction. “Radical” leftist have achieved their sick goal. It’s not as easy as a “Party” issue, but more extremist agendas. I “feel” than President John K. Kennedy would not recognize the “Party” he was associated with. With the exception of “Native Americans”, we are all Immigrants (foreigner) to this land; and all desire just what our Founding Fathers (and Mothers) proclaimed so brilliantly. Sure seems inspired by some higher power to me (Dare I say God or Jesus?!)
      Again, Thank you Angel for your Brave words of wisdom.
      Still Hopeful!

  16. kelvin

    We are a strong people,to have survived slavery and todays injustice in America,I feel we will be vindicated because we are still here and are not going any where,everything happens for a reason and we as apeople have passed the test and then some.Have a good day my strong lovely people .

  17. Nicholas Brown

    My grandmothers great uncle was Nathan Byrd Jr of Luling Texas. I wanted to know where i can find the News Article on this heinous crime that states the son of Nathan Byrd was hanged in Luling Texas our family derrives from this Texas Region and has struggled for over 100 years with concerns of Land Oil & Gas lease issues Luling Caldwell County Texas. We believe that the lynching is not just a hate crime of physical torture perputrated March 11, 1902 on Nathan Byrd but was also imparted on our whole family generation , but it was also a Economical Lynching and racial injustice, for over 150 years at best. The stealing of Oil & Gas lease Royalties from this same family has also taken place. Back in the year 1922 when Luling Texas became the Big Oil Capital City of Texas and Nathan Byrd Sr struck oil on his portion of land ,which was part of the Luling Branyon Oil Field this section produced 300,000 barrells of oil in a short period of time now the problem is that the Nathan Byrd family was apparently robbed blind for their lack of Knowledge concerning the Land / Oil and Gas Lease matters. So of course a Contract was drawn up by Branyon Oil lease company and Nathan Byrd. that has gone lease to lease to lease over many years I believe the family took what was offered to them not knowing they would be decieved and cheated out of royalties. Economicaly i have wittnessed my grandmother and her syblings waste away from lack & poverty just trying to make ends meet , yet knowing that they owned Land but never aquiring what they economically should have banked financially. also the Railroad Commission / State of Texas has put a Railroad track through the land and the family has never been paid for that amazing ! So when i stumbled upon this article feelings of hurt settled in my heart along with anger concerning this hate crime that reached out to me from the grave of Nathan Byrd Jr. way back March 11, 1902 hopefully someone will see this injustice as i see it because like i said earlier its just a modern day lynching and its still killing us off.

  18. Nicholas Brown

    My grandmothers great uncle was Nathan Byrd Jr of Luling Texas. I wanted to know where i can find the News Article on this heinous crime that states the son of Nathan Byrd was hanged in Luling Texas our family derives from this Texas Region and has struggled for over 100 years with concerns of Land Oil & Gas lease issues Luling Caldwell County Texas. We believe that the lynching is not just a hate crime of physical torture perpetrated March 11, 1902 on Nathan Byrd but was also imparted on our whole family generation , but it was also a Economical Lynching and racial injustice, for over 150 years at best. The stealing of Oil & Gas lease Royalties from this same family has also taken place. Back in the year 1922 when Luling Texas became the Big Oil Capital City of Texas and Nathan Byrd Sr struck oil on his portion of land ,which was part of the Luling Branyon Oil Field this section produced 300,000 barrels of oil in a short period of time now the problem is that the Nathan Byrd family was apparently robbed blind for their lack of Knowledge concerning the Land / Oil and Gas Lease matters. So of course a Contract was drawn up by Branyon Oil lease company and Nathan Byrd. that has gone lease to lease to lease over many years I believe the family took what was offered to them not knowing they would be deceived and cheated out of royalties. Economically i have witnessed my grandmother and her siblings waste away from lack & poverty just trying to make ends meet , yet knowing that they owned Land but never acquiring what they economically should have banked financially. also the Railroad Commission / State of Texas has put a Railroad track through the land and the family has never been paid for that amazing ! So when I stumbled upon this article feelings of hurt settled in my heart along with anger concerning this hate crime that reached out to me from the grave of Nathan Byrd Jr. way back March 11, 1902 hopefully someone will see this injustice as I see it because like I said earlier its just a modern day lynching and its still killing us off.

  19. HI, I wanted to send an announcement my new book, which is due for release in 7 to 8 weeks. This book tells the story of the Coatesville Lynching and reveals many new facts about Zachariah Walker, his background, his family and WIFE and the entire lynching. I have done research and include court documents including the entire trial transcript for one of the accused lynchers. This book gives a detailed accounting of the lynching including Walkers shooting, care at the police station, operation and then lynching. More than just another commentary on lynching its the story with the persons involved; who did what, what the other blacks in town did and said, a new look with documented facts. I hope you can get the chance to read it.
    Janet Messner Tallon

    https://www.createspace.com/Preview/1080815

  20. Kita

    Very profound; very painful. Thank you.

  21. I encourage all to review my website, http://www.LaShawndaCroweStorm.com and participate in my community-based healing project, The Lynch Quilts Project, which utilizes quilting as a vehicle to explore and heal this part of American history. Ms. Ann I would greatly appreciate it if you would contact me via email, as I would like to further discuss how you could possible participate in the Project.

  22. deboss

    my name is tanya williams and i really want to understand my black history i have been blind for 45 years i never knew all this and i will continue to visit so i can learn more i see this on tv and its all lies but to read it i feel so hurted because i have been lied to

  23. Maki

    Thank you for this eye-opening knowledge on such an unknown chapter in this country’s past.

  24. Caprice

    Janet Messner Tallon you can report what you want in your book but bottom line is….back in those days the white man would write anything, and say anything to justify the lynchings of black men. They would turn a story around quickly to make you believe this is what happened. A black man had no chance back then. It was a celebration for the whites to violently kill a black man, rape and kill a black woman and children. You weren’t there to know what happen but history proves and has continually revealed evidence that the black man was always treated unjustly, violently killed, lied on to cover why the white mobs killed them and so on. Black people had no chance and were killed many a time for no reasons that would justify killings and if Mr. Walker killed in self defense, whites still would have violently killed him despite it was self defense, hell he killed a white man. Back then whites ran everything so it was very easy to be backed by the editors and writers of the newspapers and so on to what you wanted said as to the reason of the lynching. So you can say what you want with documents that were more than likely lies to cover up the violent acts of the white mob. I believe this man, Mr. Walker fought and killed in self defense.

  25. Edmund Spencer.

    There were not 45 lynchings in Rayne Louisiana in January 1911. A woman and her three children were murdered in the night in January 1911. Later, an African American woman, Clementine Barnabet, confessed to that killing, among others. In total, there approximately 45 killings in Lousisiana and Texas were attributed to a Christian/voodoo cult called the Church of the Sacrifice. Clementine Barnabet was subsequently convicted of the murder of a family named Randall – the evidence against her included blood and brain splatter found on her clothing immediately after the killings. There were not lynchings. Google “Clementine Barnabet” or “Church of the Sacrifice” and 1911 and 1912.

  26. Eric

    MODERATOR:

    Comment deleted.

    Read my Comment Policy.

  27. J. J. Johnson

    My God! 98% of these men raped women! They deserved too die!

    MODERATOR: Please provide proof that “98% of these men raped women!”

    Document your evidence with written primary and secondary sources.

    You have stated a claim……..now, be so kind as to back it up with irrefutable proof.

  28. J. Hammer

    Any idea why so many of these killings took place in 1918?

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