WORLD DAY FOR AUDIOVISUAL HERITAGE [UNESCO]: OCTOBER 27, 2014

WORLD DAY FOR AUDIOVISUAL HERITAGE

Quick Facts

The World Day for Audiovisual Heritage is observed on October 27 every year.

Local names

Name Language
World Day for Audiovisual Heritage English
Día Mundial del Patrimonio Audiovisual Spanish
יום מורשת חזותית עולם אודיו Hebrew
باليوم العالمي للتراث السمعي Arabic
시청각 문화 유산에 대한 세계의 날 Korean
Welttag des audiovisuellen Erbes German

World Day for Audiovisual Heritage 2014 Theme: ‘Archives at Risk: Much More to Do’

Monday, October 27, 2014

World Day for Audiovisual Heritage 2015

Tuesday, October 27, 2015
List of dates for other years

The World Day for Audiovisual Heritage is annually observed on October 27 to build global awareness of issues on preserving audiovisual material, such as sound recordings and moving images.

cutout of 16mm motion picture projector

The World Day for Audiovisual Heritage explores issues such as ways to preserve audiovisual material and documents.

©iStockphoto.com/Michael Kurtz

What do people do?

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) works with organizations, governments and communities promote the World Day for Audiovisual Heritage on October 27 each year. Activities and events include:

  • Competitions, such as a logo contest, to promote the World Day for Audiovisual Heritage.
  • Local programs organized as a joint effort between national film archives, audiovisual societies, television or radio stations, and governments.
  • Panel discussions, conferences, and public talks on the importance of preserving important audiovisual documents.
  • Special film screenings.

Countries previously involved in observing the day included (but were not exclusive to) Canada, Denmark, Thailand, and the United States.

Public life

The World Day for Audiovisual Heritage is a global observance and not a public holiday.

Background

Many sound recordings, moving images and other audiovisual material are lost because of neglect, natural decay and technological obsolescence. Organizations such as UNESCO felt that more audiovisual documents would be lost if stronger and concerted international action was not taken. A proposal to commemorate a World Day for Audiovisual Heritage was approved at a UNESCO general conference in 2005. The first World Day for Audiovisual Heritage was held on October 27, 2007.

The World Day for Audiovisual Heritage aims to raise general awareness of the need for urgent measures to be taken. It also focuses on acknowledging the importance of audiovisual documents as an integral part of national identity.

Symbols

UNESCO’s logo features a drawing of a temple with the “UNESCO” acronym under the roof of the temple and on top of the temple’s foundation. Underneath the temple are the words “United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization”. This logo is often used in promotional material for the World Day for Audiovisual Heritage.

World Day for Audiovisual Heritage Observances

 

Weekday Date Year Name Holiday type Where it is observed
Sat Oct 27 2007 World Day for Audiovisual Heritage United Nations observance
Mon Oct 27 2008 World Day for Audiovisual Heritage United Nations observance
Tue Oct 27 2009 World Day for Audiovisual Heritage United Nations observance
Wed Oct 27 2010 World Day for Audiovisual Heritage United Nations observance
Thu Oct 27 2011 World Day for Audiovisual Heritage United Nations observance
Sat Oct 27 2012 World Day for Audiovisual Heritage United Nations observance
Sun Oct 27 2013 World Day for Audiovisual Heritage United Nations observance
Mon Oct 27 2014 World Day for Audiovisual Heritage United Nations observance
Tue Oct 27 2015 World Day for Audiovisual Heritage United Nations observance
Thu Oct 27 2016 World Day for Audiovisual Heritage United Nations observance
Fri Oct 27 2017 World Day for Audiovisual Heritage United Nations observance
Sat Oct 27 2018 World Day for Audiovisual Heritage United Nations observance
Sun Oct 27 2019 World Day for Audiovisual Heritage United Nations observance
Tue Oct 27 2020 World Day for Audiovisual Heritage United Nations observance

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IN REMEMBRANCE: 10-26-2014

ALI MAZRUI, SCHOLAR OF AFRICA WHO DIVIDED U.S. AUDIENCES

Dr. Ali A. Mazrui in 1986. Credit Chris Terrill/BBC Enterprises

His family announced the death without specifying a cause.

Uhuru Kenyatta, the president of Kenya, where Professor Mazrui was born, said at the time of his death that he was “a towering academician whose intellectual contributions played a major role in shaping African scholarship.”

His books and his hundreds of scholarly articles explored topics like African politics, international political culture, political Islam and globalization. He was for many years a professor at the University of Michigan, and since 1989 had held the Albert Schweitzer chair at Binghamton University, State University of New York.

Reflecting his habit of provocation, Professor Mazrui wrote an article in 2012, posted on Facebook, accusing Dr. Schweitzer, the revered medical missionary in pre-independence Gabon, of being “a benevolent racist.” He wrote that Dr. Schweitzer had called Africans “primitives” and “savages,” and had treated Africans in a hospital unit that was separate from, and less comfortable than, one for whites.

Professor Mazrui’s courage transcended ideas. When he was a political-science professor in Uganda in the early 1970s, the country’s brutal dictator, Idi Amin, invited him to be his chief adviser on international affairs — “his Kissinger,” Professor Mazrui told The New York Times in 1986. Instead, he publicly criticized Amin and fled Uganda.

“The Africans,” a nine-part series that was originally broadcast by the BBC and later shown on PBS, portrayed Africa as having been defined by the interplay of indigenous, Islamic and Western influences. Professor Mazrui had acquired the perspective by growing up speaking Swahili, practicing Islam and attending an English-speaking school in Mombasa, Kenya.

“My three worlds overlapped,” he said in the interview with The Times.

The series glorified the Libyan leader Muammar el-Qaddafi, saying he inspired Africans to have a sense of destiny and become actors on the world stage — a stance that set off storms of criticism. In the last episode, Professor Mazrui predicted a “final racial conflict” in South Africa that would end with whites’ shrinking from using nuclear weapons for fear of killing themselves and then being defeated in an armed struggle, ending apartheid. Victorious blacks, he said, would then inherit “the most advanced nuclear infrastructure on the continent,” and nuclear weapons would become a bargaining chip in a worldwide black-white struggle.

Ali Mazrui.

He told The Los Angeles Times that he was “uneasy” that the United States and the Soviet Union could start a nuclear war, without Africa having the same capability. “I want black Africa to have the bomb to frighten the system as a whole,” he said.

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SKYWATCH: SEE A HUGE SUNSPOT, SOLAR ECLIPSE REPORT, AND MORE

LATEST NEWS

Targeting Crisis Averted for New Horizons
NASA scientists have found three potential Kuiper belt objects in the nick of time, saving the Pluto-bound probe from missing out on half of its mission.

NASA’s IRIS Finds Solar Tornadoes, Bombs, and More
New IRIS results show a Sun rife with twisting and snapping magnetic fields, data that will elicit clues on what bakes the puzzlingly hot corona.

Spacecraft Observe Comet Siding Spring
Although flight controllers were worried that Mars-orbiting spacecraft might be harmed by the comet’s close approach, nothing happened – and unique scientific observations are now streaming back to Earth.

OBSERVING HIGHLIGHTS

Dark Skies for 2014’s Orionid Meteor Shower
The Orionid shower is a long-lasting display of meteors that peaks about October 21st. With moonlight not a factor, an observer under clear dark skies might see an Orionid every 5 minutes in the hours before dawn.

Huge Sunspot Group Now in View
A gigantic cluster of sunspots, emerging into view on October 17th, could become the trigger point for potent solar storms.

How Many Pleiades Can YOU See?
Most of us are familiar with the Seven Sisters, but have you met their brothers? Learn how to find more Pleiades than first meet the eye.

This Week’s Sky at a Glance, October 24 – November 1
Some daily sky sights among the ever-changing stars and planets.

COMMUNITY

Partial Solar Eclipse Roundup
Readers share their experiences of the October 23, 2014 partial solar eclipse.

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HATEWATCH: CLIVEN BUNDY IN BIZARRE VIDEO FOR BLACK CANDIDATE: ‘IT’S ALMOST LIKE BLACKS FOLKS THINK WHITE FOLKS OWE THEM SOMETHING’

Cliven Bundy in Bizarre Video for Black Candidate: ‘It’s Almost Like Black Folks Think White Folks Owe Them Something’

By David Neiwert on October 20, 2014 – 3:34 pm

Cliven Bundy, the defiant “Patriot” Nevada rancher who led an armed confrontation with federal agents in April – and who has still not faced any consequences in its aftermath – continued making the far-right political rounds in Nevada this week by appearing in a video promoting the candidacy of Independent American Party candidate Kamau Bakari.

This is somewhat remarkable, considering that Bakari is African-American. Rather than run away from Bundy’s reputation as a racist — well earned, after his widely publicized remarks about race in the immediate aftermath of Bundy’s showdown — the two of them went on the offensive, attacking his critics for their “political correctness,” which Bakari says is “bad for America.”

But none of it is as remarkable as the exchange between the two men, in which Bundy complains that “a man ought to be able to express himself without being called names”, and adds: “It’s almost like black folks think white folks owe them something.”

The ad opens with a clip of U.S. Attorney General Eric holder, commenting in 2009 on the state of race in America: “In things racial, we have always been and I believe continue to be, in too many ways, essentially a nation of cowards.”

The ad then segues to Bundy and Bakari in western cowboy garb with their horses at a hitching post, as spaghetti-western music plays in the background.

Transcript:

BUNDY: Did he just call me a coward?

BAKARI: No, he just called all white folks cowards.

BUNDY: He must not know me.

BAKARI: You mean if someone called you a racist, you wouldn’t drop your head and be all scared and sad and run around here apologizing like them billionaire ball team owners did a little while ago?

BUNDY: No, I wouldn’t, and I’m sick and tired of people that act like that.

BAKARI: Cliven, you know that political correctness, that’s bad for America. A man ought to be able to say whatever you want to say.

BUNDY: That’s exactly right. I know black folks have had a hard time with slavery and you know, the government was in on it. And the government’s in on it again. I worked my whole life without mistreating anybody. A man ought to be able to express himself without being called names.

BAKARI: I hear you, Cliven, I believe you. A brave white man like you might be just what we need to put an end to this political correctness in America today.

BUNDY: Don’t sell yourself short. You’re taking a chance just being in my company.

BAKARI: I know. I’m as sick as you are. I feel ashamed when I hear black folks whining about “white folks this,” “white folks that.” Always begging.

BUNDY: It’s almost like black folks think white folks owe them something.

BAKARI: I know, I’ve got an idea. Let’s call Eric Holder up.

BUNDY: What do you mean?

BAKARI: Tell him you’re a white man that’s not scared to talk to him about race. And you know a black man that will stand with you.

BUNDY: I like that idea. Mr. Eric Holder, this is one white man that’s not scared to talk about race. I dare you to come to Las Vegas and talk to us.

BAKARI: And don’t give us that “you’re too busy” stuff. You weren’t too busy to go to Ferguson, Missouri.

As the Washington Post notes, Bakari is a fringe candidate who has virtually no change of unseating the incumbent, Rep. Dina Titus, a Democrat, in Nevada’s 1st District.

SOURCE

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Wow. Just, wow.

bundy bakari horse

[VIDEO]

“BUNDY: That’s exactly right. I know black folks have had a hard time with slavery and you know, the government was in on it. And the government’s in on it again. I worked my whole life without mistreating anybody. A man ought to be able to express himself without being called names.”

Newsflash, Bundy:  it was not just the U.S. government that “was in on it”. So too were the White people of this nation who had not the guts, backbone, nor conscience to stand up against the wrongs perpetuated against Black people. No. They just went along with the program and racism is still with us.

“BAKARI: I know. I’m as sick as you are. I feel ashamed when I hear black folks whining about “white folks this,” “white folks that.” Always begging.”

Hey, when did this memo get passed out? It’s news to me. You mean all this time I have been working for what I have, earning a paycheck, paying city/county/state/federal taxes, and being a good citizen, I was supposed to have been “whining” and “begging”?

Damn, I guess I have a lot of time to make up for. It’s going to be exhausting whining and begging; gonna have to take more vitamins to build my strength up.

And to think that poor beautiful horse had to stand there and suffer through the indignity of these two antediluvian atavistic throw-backs to the Pre-Cambrian Epoch.

As for Uncle Ruckus…um, I meant Bakari;

garden-party-ruckus170

[VIDEO]

….entertains the delusion that many people will vote him into office.

I find it very funny that Uncle Ruckus/Bakari is standing near the end of the horse—-especially when the horse raises his tail to drop some shit.

These two missed their true calling in life. They both gave out-of-this-world standup comic routines that George Carlin, Lenny Bruce, and Richard Pryor would have killed for.

Both of these creatures talked shit that had me rolling on the floor.

Thanks for the laughs.

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WORLD DEVELOPMENT INFORMATION DAY: OCTOBER 24, 2014

 

WORLD DEVELOPMENT INFORMATION DAY

Quick Facts

The United Nations’ (UN) World Development Information Day falls on October 24 each year.

Local names

Name Language
World Development Information Day English
Día Mundial de Información sobre el Desarrollo Spanish
יום מידע עולמי לפיתוח Hebrew
يوما عالميا للإعلام الإنمائي Arabic
세계 개발 정보의 날 Korean
Welttag der Information über Entwicklungsfragen German

World Development Information Day 2014

Friday, October 24, 2014

World Development Information Day 2015

Saturday, October 24, 2015

The United Nations’ (UN) World Development Information Day is annually held on October 24 to draw attention of worldwide public opinion to development problems and the need to strengthen international cooperation to solve them.

World Development Information Day activities attract the media, including television journalists.

©iStockphoto.com/acitore

What do people do?

Many events are organized to focus attention on the work that the UN does, particularly with regard to problems of trade and development. Many of these are aimed at journalists working for a range of media, including television, radio, newspapers, magazines and Internet sites. Direct campaigns may also be organized in some areas. These may use advertisements in newspapers and on radio and television as well as posters in public places.

In South Africa, indabas (gatherings of community representatives with expertise in a particular area) are often held. Representatives of local, national and international bodies are invited to share, discuss and consolidate their ideas around a particular development issue of local or national importance.

Public life

World Development Information Day is a global observance and not a public holiday.

Background

On May 17, 1972, the UN Conference on Trade and Development proposed measures for the information dissemination and the mobilization of public opinion relative to trade and development problems. These became known as resolution 3038 (XXVII), which was passed by the UN General Assembly on December 19, 1972.

This resolution called for introducing World Development Information Day to help draw the attention of people worldwide to development problems. A further aim of the event is to explain to the general public why it is necessary to strengthen international cooperation to find ways to solve these problems. The assembly also decided that the day should coincide with United Nations Day to stress the central role of development in the UN’s work. World Development Information Day was first held on October 24, 1973, and has been held on this date each year since then.

In recent years, many events have interpreted the title of the day slightly differently. These have concentrated on the role that modern information technologies, such as Internet and mobile telephones can play in alerting people and finding solutions to problems of trade and development. One of the specific aims of World Development Information Day was to inform and motivate young people and this change may help to further this aim.

World Development Information Day Observances

 

Weekday Date Year Name Holiday type Where it is observed
Wed Oct 24 1990 World Development Information Day United Nations observance
Thu Oct 24 1991 World Development Information Day United Nations observance
Sat Oct 24 1992 World Development Information Day United Nations observance
Sun Oct 24 1993 World Development Information Day United Nations observance
Mon Oct 24 1994 World Development Information Day United Nations observance
Tue Oct 24 1995 World Development Information Day United Nations observance
Thu Oct 24 1996 World Development Information Day United Nations observance
Fri Oct 24 1997 World Development Information Day United Nations observance
Sat Oct 24 1998 World Development Information Day United Nations observance
Sun Oct 24 1999 World Development Information Day United Nations observance
Tue Oct 24 2000 World Development Information Day United Nations observance
Wed Oct 24 2001 World Development Information Day United Nations observance
Thu Oct 24 2002 World Development Information Day United Nations observance
Fri Oct 24 2003 World Development Information Day United Nations observance
Sun Oct 24 2004 World Development Information Day United Nations observance
Mon Oct 24 2005 World Development Information Day United Nations observance
Tue Oct 24 2006 World Development Information Day United Nations observance
Wed Oct 24 2007 World Development Information Day United Nations observance
Fri Oct 24 2008 World Development Information Day United Nations observance
Sat Oct 24 2009 World Development Information Day United Nations observance
Sun Oct 24 2010 World Development Information Day United Nations observance
Mon Oct 24 2011 World Development Information Day United Nations observance
Wed Oct 24 2012 World Development Information Day United Nations observance
Thu Oct 24 2013 World Development Information Day United Nations observance
Fri Oct 24 2014 World Development Information Day United Nations observance
Sat Oct 24 2015 World Development Information Day United Nations observance
Mon Oct 24 2016 World Development Information Day United Nations observance
Tue Oct 24 2017 World Development Information Day United Nations observance
Wed Oct 24 2018 World Development Information Day United Nations observance
Thu Oct 24 2019 World Development Information Day United Nations observance
Sat Oct 24 2020 World Development Information Day United Nations observance

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UNITED NATIONS DAY: OCTOBER 24, 2014

 

UNITED NATIONS DAY

Quick Facts

United Nations Day marks the anniversary of the United Nations Charter coming into force in 1945 and celebrates the work of this organization. United Nations Day annually falls on October 24.

Local names

Name Language
United Nations Day English
Día de las Naciones Unidas Spanish
יום האומות המאוחדות Hebrew
يوم الأمم المتحدة Arabic
국제 연합일 Korean
Tag der Vereinten Nationen German

United Nations Day 2014

Friday, October 24, 2014

United Nations Day 2015

Saturday, October 24, 2015

On October 24, 1945, the United Nations (UN) came into force when the five permanent members of the security council ratified the charter that had been drawn up earlier that year. These members were: France, the Republic of China, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States.

Since 1948, the event’s anniversary has been known as United Nations Day. It is an occasion to highlight, celebrate and reflect on the work of the United Nations and its family of specialized agencies.

United Nations offices around the world join in to observe United Nations Day.

©iStockphoto.com/Michael Palis

What do people do?

On and around October 24, many activities are organized by all parts of the UN, particularly in the main offices in New York, the Hague (Netherlands), Geneva (Switzerland), Vienna (Austria) and Nairobi (Kenya). These include: concerts; flying the UN flag on important buildings; debates on the relevance of the work of the UN in modern times; and proclamations by state heads and other leaders.

Public life

United Nations Day is a global observance and not a public holiday.

Background

The foundations for a “League of Nations” were laid in the Treaty of Versailles, which was one of the treaties to formally end World War I. The treaty was signed in Versailles, France, on June 28, 1919. The league aimed to encourage disarmament, prevent outbreaks of war, encourage negotiations and diplomatic measures to settle international disputes and to improve the quality of life around the world. However, the outbreak of World War II suggested that the League of Nations needed to take on a different form.

The ideas around the United Nations were developed in the last years of World War II, particularly during the UN Conference on International Organization in San Francisco, the United States, beginning on April 25, 1945. The UN was officially created when a UN charter was ratified on October 24 that year.

United Nations Day was first observed on October 24, 1948. The UN recommended that United Nations Day should be a public holiday in member states since 1971. There were also calls for United Nations Day to be an international public holiday to bring attention to the work, role and achievements of the UN and its family of specialized agencies. These have been spectacular, particularly in the fields of human rights, support in areas of famine, eradication of disease, promotion of health and settlement of refugees.

The UN does not work alone but together with many specialized agencies, including: the World Health Organization (WHO); the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO); the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO); the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF); International Labour Organization (ILO); United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR); and United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC).

Symbols

The UN emblem consists of a projection of the globe centered on the North Pole. It depicts all continents except Antarctica and four concentric circles representing degrees of latitude. The projection is surrounded by images of olive branches, representing peace. The emblem is often blue, although it is printed in white on a blue background on the UN flag.

United Nations Day Observances

 

Weekday Date Year Name Holiday type Where it is observed
Wed Oct 24 1990 United Nations Day United Nations observance
Thu Oct 24 1991 United Nations Day United Nations observance
Sat Oct 24 1992 United Nations Day United Nations observance
Sun Oct 24 1993 United Nations Day United Nations observance
Mon Oct 24 1994 United Nations Day United Nations observance
Tue Oct 24 1995 United Nations Day United Nations observance
Thu Oct 24 1996 United Nations Day United Nations observance
Fri Oct 24 1997 United Nations Day United Nations observance
Sat Oct 24 1998 United Nations Day United Nations observance
Sun Oct 24 1999 United Nations Day United Nations observance
Tue Oct 24 2000 United Nations Day United Nations observance
Wed Oct 24 2001 United Nations Day United Nations observance
Thu Oct 24 2002 United Nations Day United Nations observance
Fri Oct 24 2003 United Nations Day United Nations observance
Sun Oct 24 2004 United Nations Day United Nations observance
Mon Oct 24 2005 United Nations Day United Nations observance
Tue Oct 24 2006 United Nations Day United Nations observance
Wed Oct 24 2007 United Nations Day United Nations observance
Fri Oct 24 2008 United Nations Day United Nations observance
Sat Oct 24 2009 United Nations Day United Nations observance
Sun Oct 24 2010 United Nations Day United Nations observance
Mon Oct 24 2011 United Nations Day United Nations observance
Wed Oct 24 2012 United Nations Day United Nations observance
Thu Oct 24 2013 United Nations Day United Nations observance
Fri Oct 24 2014 United Nations Day United Nations observance
Sat Oct 24 2015 United Nations Day United Nations observance
Mon Oct 24 2016 United Nations Day United Nations observance
Tue Oct 24 2017 United Nations Day United Nations observance
Wed Oct 24 2018 United Nations Day United Nations observance
Thu Oct 24 2019 United Nations Day United Nations observance
Sat Oct 24 2020 United Nations Day United Nations observance

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IN REMEMBRANCE: 10-19-2014

ELIZABETH PENA, ACTRESS ON THE BIG SCREEN AND SMALL SCREENS

Elizabeth Peña and Chris Cooper in John Sayles’s “Lone Star” (1996), for which she won an Independent Spirit Award. Credit Alan Papp/Castle Rock Entertainment

Her manager, Gina Rugolo, confirmed her death, saying it followed a brief illness.

Ms. Peña played everything from love interest to comedic sidekick in movies and on television for 35 years. She was a demolition specialist alongside Jackie Chan and Chris Tucker in “Rush Hour” (1998). As Pilar Cruz, a history teacher who rekindles a romance with a small-town Texas sheriff in “Lone Star” (1996), she won an Independent Spirit Award for best supporting actress. “The sultry Ms. Peña gives an especially vivid performance as the character who is most unsettled by the shadows of the past,” Janet Maslin wrote in The New York Times in 1996.

Her first major film role was as Tim Robbins’s lover in Adrian Lyne’s psychological thriller “Jacob’s Ladder” (1990). She reportedly won the part over stars like Julia Roberts, Andie MacDowell and Madonna.

A television regular, Ms. Peña appeared on shows like “L.A. Law,” “American Dad” and “Boston Public.” In the mid-1980s, she starred as a maid who marries her employer to stay in the United States in the short-lived sitcom “I Married Dora,” and starting in 2000 she played a hairdresser in “Resurrection Blvd.,” the Showtime drama about an upwardly mobile Latino family.

More recently she played the mother of Sofia Vergara’s character on the hit ABC sitcom “Modern Family,” even though she was only 13 years older than Ms. Vergara.

Elizabeth Peña was born in Elizabeth, N.J., on Sept. 23, 1959. Her father, Mario, was a Cuban actor, director and playwright, and Ms. Peña spent much of her childhood in Cuba before returning to the United States. She graduated from what is now the Fiorello H. LaGuardia High School of Music and Art and Performing Arts in Manhattan.

She performed in a production of “Romeo and Juliet,” translated into Spanish by the poet Pablo Neruda, at the Gramercy Theater in 1979 and made her film debut in the Spanish-language film “El Super” that year.

Ms. Peña went on to play the mistreated wife of Ritchie Valens’s half brother in the biopic “La Bamba” (1987); Jamie Lee Curtis’s confidante in the action film “Blue Steel” (1989); and Richard Dreyfuss’s and Bette Midler’s maid in the comedy “Down and Out in Beverly Hills” (1986).

She also did voice-over work in the animated film “The Incredibles” (2004) and cartoons like “Justice League.”

She married Hans Rolla in 1994. He survives her, as does their son, Kaelan; their daughter, Fiona Rolla; her mother, Estella Margarita Peña; and a sister, Tania Peña.

Ms. Peña said that she researched Mexican-American culture to prepare for her part in “Lone Star.”

“I recorded people’s voices to get the proper inflection,” she told The Ottawa Citizen in 1996. “I crossed the border a whole bunch to collect a lot of history. I would sit for hours looking at the women, how they dressed.”

“In the United States, all Spanish-speaking people are lumped into one category,” she continued. “But we’re all so different.”

SOURCE

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NORWARD ROUSSELL, LEADER OF SELMA SCHOOLS IN TURBULENT TIMES

As superintendent for Selma, Ala., Norward Roussell tried to reform the process of “tracking” students by ability, and was fired amid animosity that recalled the city’s racially divided past. Credit Tom Giles/Black Star

The cause was myelodysplastic syndrome, a type of bone marrow cancer, his daughter, Melanie Newman, said.

By the time Dr. Roussell came to Selma, blacks owned businesses and held administrative positions like postmaster, and many whites hoped that the bloody attack on demonstrators by club-wielding state troopers on the Edmund Pettus Bridge that had horrified the nation was distant, shameful history.

“We were wrong,” Joe Smitherman, who was first elected mayor of Selma in 1964 as a supporter of George C. Wallace, Alabama’s segregationist governor, and served for 38 years, said in an interview with The Los Angeles Times in 1990. “And I don’t know how to say it better than that. And I was part of that wrong.”

In Selma, Dr. Roussell (pronounced ROO-sell), who had been a top administrator in the New Orleans school system, chose to take on a very touchy educational issue: the “leveling” or “tracking” of students by ability. Poor minority students had tended to end up in the lowest of three groupings, and black parents had been protesting that their children were segregated into inferior instruction.

Gay Talese, who had covered the 1965 march for The New York Times and returned to Selma in 1990 to report on the school-board controversy, said in his memoir “A Writer’s Life” (2006) that Dr. Roussell was determined to at least reform, if not end, what had been a haphazard, arbitrary process. (Tracking has since been largely abandoned in American schools.)

“The movement had finally succeeded during the mid-1950s in enrolling black students in white classrooms, providing blacks and whites with an equal opportunity for a broader education, and also as classmates to learn more about one another and ideally promote greater understanding and tolerance,” Mr. Talese wrote of Dr. Roussell’s motivations. “What a pity it would be if the victory over school segregation in the 1950s were followed at century’s end by school segregation of another type.”

But on Dec. 24, 1989, the school board’s six white members voted not to renew Dr. Roussell’s contract, which was to expire on June 30, citing incompetence. The five black members walked out. On Feb. 2, the white majority voted to dismiss him altogether.

Blacks and their supporters staged sit-ins; students boycotted school until all 11 of the city’s schools were closed; many white parents withdrew their children and enrolled them in all-white private schools. As tensions mounted, Gov. Guy Hunt sent 200 National Guard troops to Selma to restore order, recalling the scene almost a quarter-century earlier.

Everybody seemed to have something to say. In an evaluation, the board said that Dr. Roussell had been “dictatorial” and “abrasive.” Black lawyers complained that the process by which the school board members were chosen — they were appointed by the City Council, not elected — was unconstitutional. White parents claimed that Dr. Roussell had pushed a political agenda and had not enforced discipline.

Mayor Smitherman suggested that people were reliving the civil rights movement, although at a considerably less intense level. This time, Mr. Talese reported, when demonstrators yelled, “C’mon beat us,” troopers ignored them. When the protesters knelt to pray, troopers took off their hats and lowered their heads.

Dr. Roussell was reinstated, but his contract was not extended. He sued the school board for $10 million in damages, but settled for $150,000 and left.

Norward Roussell was born in New Orleans on July 11, 1934. He and his identical twin brother, Norman, were the youngest of seven children. Their father, Edward, who had been a baseball player in the Negro leagues, owned a fruit-cart business and never went to school. His wife, Rosa, taught him to read and write his name. He died when the twins were 8.

People magazine reported in 1990 that the day after their high school graduation, the twins awoke to find their mother standing over their beds with sack lunches. They got jobs digging ditches. A week of that was enough, and they both quit and found employment at a nearby laundry. After a year there, they joined the Air Force and went to Korea, where they were assigned to administrative work.

Their brothers and sisters contributed savings to send the twins to Dillard University in New Orleans, where they both majored in biology. They then earned master’s degrees in chemistry from Fisk University in Nashville and Ph.D.s in education from Wayne State University in Detroit, before going on to careers in teaching and educational administration.

Norward worked in New Orleans schools and eventually became area superintendent, supervising 30 schools and 28,000 students. He was then hired by Selma.

Mr. Talese wrote that Norward Roussell was a “slender gentleman” who carried himself with “majestic dignity.” He was, he continued, “perceived as an orderly individual who would create an atmosphere within the school system and the city that would foster biracial cooperation and advance the idea that headline-making activism was detrimental to Selma’s economic growth.”

He accepted an invitation to be the first black in Selma’s Rotary Club, but did not pursue membership in the country club. “I did not come to Selma to claw down racial barriers,” he told Mr. Talese.

After leaving Selma, Dr. Roussell went to Tuskegee, Ala., to be superintendent of the Macon County schools, which ran into financial trouble and were taken over by the state during his tenure. After four years in Tuskegee, he returned to New Orleans to become an executive at his alma mater, Dillard. He finished his career as interim superintendent of the New Orleans public schools. After Hurricane Katrina destroyed his home in New Orleans, he moved back to Selma.

In addition to his daughter and brother, he is survived by his wife of 53 years, the former Joan Verrett; his sister, Ada Anderson; his sons, Eric and Norman; and three grandchildren.

“I sought fairness in the system,” Dr. Roussell once said. “It was simply that.”

Correction: October 17, 2014
An obituary on Thursday about Norward Roussell, the first black superintendent of schools in Selma, Ala., misstated the number of years he was superintendent of the Macon County schools in Alabama. It was four years, not eight. The obituary also misspelled part of the name of the bridge where state troopers attacked civil rights demonstrators in 1965. It is the Edmund Pettus Bridge, not the Edmund Pettis Bridge.

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DAVID GREENGLASS, THE BROTHER WHO DOOMED ETHEL ROSENBERG

David Greenglass at a Senate Internal Security subcommittee hearing about American spying activities in April 1956. Credit Henry Griffin/Associated Press

For his role in the conspiracy, Mr. Greenglass, an Army sergeant who had stolen nuclear intelligence from Los Alamos, N.M., went to prison for almost a decade, then changed his name and lived quietly until a journalist tracked him down. He admitted then, nearly a half-century later, that he had lied on the witness stand to save his wife from prosecution, giving testimony that he was never sure about but that nevertheless helped send his sister and her husband to the electric chair in 1953.

Mr. Greenglass died on July 1, a family member confirmed. He was 92. His family did not announce his death; The New York Times learned of it in a call to the nursing home where he had been living under his assumed name. Mr. Greenglass’s wife, Ruth, who had played a minor role in the conspiracy and also gave damning testimony against the Rosenbergs, died in 2008.

Mr. Greenglass, with his sister, Ethel Rosenberg.

In today’s world, where spying has more to do with greed than ideology, the story of David Greenglass and the Rosenbergs is an enduring time capsule from an age of uncertainties — of world war against fascism, Cold War with the Soviets, and shifting alliances that led some Americans to embrace utopian communism and others to denounce such ideas, and their exponents, as un-American.

Mr. Greenglass, who grew up on the Lower East Side of Manhattan in a household that believed Marxism would save humanity, was an ardent, preachy Communist when drafted by the Army in World War II, but no one in the barracks took him very seriously, much less believed him capable of spying.

He was not well educated, but his skills as a machinist — and pure luck — led to his assignment in 1944 to the Manhattan Project at Los Alamos, where America’s first atomic bombs were being developed. After being picked to replace a soldier who had gone AWOL, he lied on his security clearance report and was assigned to a team making precision molds for high-explosive lenses used to detonate the nuclear core.

When Mr. Rosenberg, already a Soviet spy, learned of his brother-in-law’s work, he recruited him. Security was often lax at Los Alamos, with safes and file cabinets left unlocked and classified documents lying on desks. Mr. Greenglass had no need for Hollywood spy tricks. He kept his eyes and ears open, and in mid-1945 sent Mr. Rosenberg a crude sketch and 12 pages of technical details on the bomb.

That September, after the Japanese cities Hiroshima and Nagasaki were destroyed with atomic bombs, ending the war, David and Ruth Greenglass visited the Rosenbergs’ apartment in New York. What happened there later became a matter of life and death, for as Mr. Greenglass delivered his latest spy notes, a woman — either his wife or his sister — sat at a Remington typewriter and typed them out.

The significance of that act did not become evident for five years. By then the Soviet Union, once America’s ally, had become a Cold War foe, witch hunts for suspected Communists were underway, and spy networks were being broken up. Klaus Fuchs, a physicist who had worked at Los Alamos, was caught, and named Harry Gold as a courier. Mr. Gold then named the Greenglasses and the Rosenbergs, who were arrested in 1950.

Mr. Greenglass admitted passing secrets to Mr. Rosenberg, but refused at first to implicate his sister. But just before the Rosenberg trial, Mr. Greenglass changed his story. Told that Ruth had informed F.B.I. agents that Ethel had typed his notes, he supported his wife’s account and agreed to testify against his sister and her husband.

Ruth Greenglass, wife of Mr. Greenglass, in 1951. She had a supporting role in the conspiracy and gave damning testimony against the Rosenbergs. She died in 2008. Credit The New York Times

Mr. Greenglass was under intense pressure. He had not yet been sentenced, and his wife, the mother of his two small children, faced possible prosecution, though her role had been minimal. In federal court in Manhattan in 1951, Mr. Greenglass’s testimony — corroborated by his wife’s — clinched the case against Mr. Rosenberg and implicated Mrs. Rosenberg.

Referring to Ethel Rosenberg in ringing hyperbolic phrases, the chief prosecutor, Irving H. Saypol, declared, “Just so had she, on countless other occasions, sat at that typewriter and struck the keys, blow by blow, against her own country in the interests of the Soviets.”

The jury found the Rosenbergs guilty of espionage conspiracy, and the presiding judge, Irving R. Kaufman, sentenced them to death. Appeals failed, and the Rosenbergs, who rejected all entreaties to name collaborators and insisted they were not guilty, were executed at Sing Sing on June 19, 1953. A co-defendant, Morton Sobell, was also convicted and was imprisoned for 18 years.

Mrs. Greenglass was not prosecuted. Mr. Greenglass was sentenced to 15 years, but was released in 1960 after nine and a half. He rejoined his wife and for decades lived quietly in the New York area, working as a machinist and inventor.

A 1983 book by Ronald Radosh and Joyce Milton, “The Rosenberg File: A Search for the Truth,” rekindled interest, concluding that Mr. Rosenberg was a dedicated spy but that his wife had played only a minor role, and raising questions about the evidence and the government’s tactics in the case. Mr. Radosh and Sol Stern also interviewed Mr. Greenglass for an article in The New Republic.

Sam Roberts, a Times editor and reporter, later found Mr. Greenglass and, after a 13-year effort, obtained 50 hours of interviews that led to a book, “The Brother: The Untold Story of the Rosenberg Case.” In the book, Mr. Greenglass admitted that, to spare his wife from prosecution, he had testified that his sister typed his notes. In fact, he said, he could not recall who had done it.

“I don’t remember that at all,” Mr. Greenglass said. “I frankly think my wife did the typing, but I don’t remember.”

Mr. Greenglass, left, with a United States marshal in 1950. Credit Associated Press

He said he had no regrets. “My wife is more important to me than my sister. Or my mother or my father, O.K.? And she was the mother of my children.”

In a 2008 interview with Mr. Roberts, Mr. Sobell admitted that he had given military secrets to the Soviet Union, and concurred in what has become a consensus among historians: that the Greenglass-Rosenberg atomic bomb details were of little value to the Soviets, except to corroborate what they already knew, and that Ethel Rosenberg had played no active role in the conspiracy.

David Greenglass was born on the Lower East Side on March 2, 1922, to immigrants from Russia and Austria. He was 14 when he met Julius Rosenberg, who began courting Ethel, who was seven years older than David, in 1936. The Rosenbergs were married in 1939.

David graduated from Haaren High School in 1940 with only fair grades. He attended Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute, but flunked out.

Mr. Greenglass and Ruth Printz, who had been neighbors, childhood sweethearts and members of the Young Communist League, were married in 1942. They had a son and a daughter, who survive him.

He had several machinist jobs before being drafted in 1943, and the Army put his skills to use. He fixed tank motors, inspected equipment and worked on ordnance in California and Mississippi. He was also assigned to classified work at Oak Ridge, Tenn., where uranium was being enriched for a secret weapon.

To pass his security clearance for the most sensitive work of the war at Los Alamos, Mr. Greenglass disguised or omitted Communist associations in his background. For character and work references, he alerted the writers — all friends — how to respond, and only glowing reports came back. “All evidence indicates subject to be loyal, honest and discreet,” Army intelligence reported.

Everywhere — even at Los Alamos — he preached communism, trying to persuade fellow G.I.s and co-workers that they would someday prosper in a utopian society free of squalor and injustice. Letters to his wife, some signed “Your Comrade,” also sprinkled dialectics among the endearments. “We who understand,” he wrote, “can bring understanding to others because we are in love and have our Marxist outlook.”

The deaths of Mr. and Mrs. Greenglass, like those of the Rosenbergs more than 60 years ago, are unlikely to end public fascination with the case, whose betrayals have been woven into American culture. In Woody Allen’s film “Crimes and Misdemeanors,” the character played by Mr. Allen says dryly that he still has feelings for his vile brother-in-law.

“I love him like a brother,” he says. “David Greenglass.”

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JUDITH EDELMAN, ARCHITECT; FIREBRAND IN A MALE-DOMINATED FIELD

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