In my first post, I addressed the situation of the Cherokee Nation disenrolling the black Cherokee Freedmen/Women form the Cherokee Nation. I spoke of the Dawes Roll and its racist implications for the Freedmen/Women, and how the white-run government put “full-blood/quantum-blood Indians” on the Dawes Roll, but visibly “black/African-looking Indians” on the Freedmen/Women’s roll. This separation of families based on how “Cherokee-looking” an individual was as opposed to how “Negro/African/Black-looking” a person was tore apart many families with some family members put on the Dawes Roll, and some family members put on the Freedmen Rolls. This started the racist dichotomy that would for generations fester and boil over until we have the present situation now in the Cherokee Nation.
I continue my post on this situation by revisiting news article excerpts from my previous post, and my assessment of the situation so far.
“In a statement late Saturday, Cherokee Nation Principal Chief Chad Smith said he was pleased with the turnout and election result.
“Their voice is clear as to who should be citizens of the Cherokee Nation,” Smith said. “No one else has the right to make that determination. It was a right of self-government, affirmed in 23 treaties with Great Britain and the United States and paid dearly with 4,000 lives on the Trail of Tears.”
He also conveniently forgot all the black slaves who were drug, with chains around their necks, walking behind the horses of the slave-holding Cherokees, many of whom also died along the infamous Trail of Tears with the Cherokees.
“The petition drive for the ballot measure followed a March 2006 ruling by the Cherokee Nation Supreme Court that said an 1866 treaty assured freedmen descendants of tribal citizenship.”
But, of course, they are black “Indians” not worthy of respect, not worthy of legal recognition. And the flagrant disregard of the 1866 treaty shows that Indian people are not strangers to practicing racism against their fellow human beings.
After all, they did copy the white man’s most hated form of racism.
Enslavement of black people.
And some people wonder why the Cherokee, Seminole, Chickasaw, Choctaw and Creek were called the “Five Civilized Tribes?”
Didn’t act so civilized then.
Aren’t acting so civilized now.
Many black Americans have Indian blood flowing through their veins.
That is where the majority of Indian blood resides in 2008 America.
But, as the Cherokees, and the Seminoles, so obviously showed, it is easier to degrade, attack and disrespect your own blood. After all, the black Indians are just descendants of black slaves. Never to be respected by either white America, nor “Indian America.”
“Miller, the tribal spokesman, defended the Cherokees against charges of racism, saying that Saturday’s vote showed the tribe was open to allowing its citizens vote on whether non-Indians be allowed membership.”
Seventy-six percent of the voters kicked out the 2,800 members.
Obviously, that 76 per cent being white-skinned wanted nothing anymore to do with their black brethren.
“More than 75 percent of those enrolled in the Cherokee Nation have less than one-quarter Cherokee blood, the vast majority of them of European ancestry.”
The “Cherokee Tribe” has spoken.
And white blood is worshiped and enshrined into their minds, behaviour and the final tallying of their votes.
“The United States, when posed the same situation with the Seminoles, would not recognize the election and they ultimately cut off most federal programs to the Seminoles,” Velie said. “They also determined the Seminoles, without this relationship with the government, were not authorized to conduct gaming.”
“TAHLEQUAH, Okla., March 1 — The casinos here are crowded by midmorning; busloads of tourists stroll the streets, and construction crews are everywhere. But peace of mind eludes the prospering Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma.”
It’s not just racist hatred of black blood that has caused the Cherokees to vote black Indians out of the Cherokee tribe.
Greed and love of money, and the desire to cheat black people who have been Indians all this time, out of their rightful claim to tribal membership, is the real underlying major reason why the “white” Indians have pushed the “black” Indians out of the tribe.
Anytime money enters the situation, always bet on reason and sanity to go out the window, and be prepared to see avarice, gluttony and selfish self-preservation that denies black Indians their rightful claim to tribe member status to bite the dust every time.
“And yet, three-quarters of a century after the death of Cherokee legend Stick Ross, there’s no room for his great-grandson in the Cherokee Nation. Leslie Ross has been denied citizenship in the tribe on the grounds that he is not truly Indian. “They said I don’t have any Indian blood. They say blacks have never had a part in the Cherokee Nation,” says Ross, his usually calm voice swelling with anger. “The thing is, there wouldn’t be a Cherokee Nation if it weren’t for my great-grandfather. Jesus, he was more Indian than the Indians!”
“Ross is just one of at least 25,000 direct descendants of Freedmen who cannot join Oklahoma’s largest tribes. Once paragons of racial inclusion and assimilation, the Native American sovereign nations have done an about-face and systematically pushed out people of African descent. “There’s never been any stigma about intermarriage,” says Stu Phillips, editor of The Seminole Producer, a local newspaper in central Oklahoma. “You’ve got Indians marrying whites, Indians marrying blacks. It was never a problem until they got some money.”
Which is what happened when the Seminoles received a $56 million reparations settlement from the United States government:
“These are boom times for the Five Civilized Tribes of Oklahoma – the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole – due in no small part to the 1988 Indian Gaming Regulatory Act that allowed the tribes to construct their own casinos. The Chickasaw’s net assets have more than doubled to $315 million in the two years since it opened the mammoth WinStar Casinos complex in Thackerville. The corporate arm of the Cherokee Nation, Cherokee Nation Enterprises, is on track to make nearly $70 million this year thanks to a new casino in Catoosa. Then there’s the government reparations fund. In 1990, the Seminoles received a $56 million settlement as compensation for the seizure of the tribe’s ancestral lands in Florida almost 200 years ago.”
“For the better part of the 20th century, black Indians were permitted to vote in elections, sit on tribal councils, and receive benefits. Tribal leaders now insist that the Freedmen were never actually citizens and that they will never attain the honor of membership because they don’t have Native American blood. In 1983, the Cherokee tribe established a rule requiring citizens to carry a Certificate of Degree of Indian Blood. This federal document is available to anyone whose ancestors are listed on the Dawes Roll – a 1906 Indian census that excludes Freedmen.
“In 2000, the Seminoles expelled all 2,000 black members and denied their families a cut of the reparations money – never mind that their ancestors joined the tribe in the 18th century, endured the march from Florida to Oklahoma in the 1830s, and have considered themselves Indian for generations. “But US courts have repeatedly refused to meddle in Indian affairs, noting that the sovereign nations determine their own membership criteria. Davis suffered a serious – and perhaps final – setback last year, when the Supreme Court refused to consider her appeal of a lower court’s ruling that the Seminoles could not be sued in federal court.
“(The Bush administration filed a brief on behalf of the tribe.)”
Of course the Bush administration would side with the “White Indians”.
Anything that means the continued insult and degradation of “Black Indians”, and anyone black, would be just fine with George Bush’s administration. Anything that would help anyone considered black, would be crushed and curtailed by the racist divide and conquer- favor one race over another administration of Bush.
Greed knows no bounds, no race, no color.
And, when MONEY and material wealth/gains enters the picture, all humane consideration bites the dust.
Especially when racism is involved.
And what the Indians are doing to the black Freedman/Women who stood by them all these centuries, decades and generations, is beyond sick.
Why would a race of people, in this case, so-called Indians, want to practice and live by the racist standards and cruelties of white Americans?
The white man and the white woman are the last race of people on this Earth that ANYONE should emulate.
After all that the white race has done to every race they have come into contact with, why imitate all that is hateful, vicious and anti-human behaviour that the white race has practiced for over 500 years?
Why further become like a race that has foisted upon the whole world the biggest murderers, the biggest liars, the biggest thieves, the biggest rapists, the biggest destroyers of all non-white cultures, the biggest practitioners of perversions, filth, desecration’s, and abominations the world has ever known?
Why, “Cherokee” Indians, do to the black Freedmen/Women what the white men and women have done to your race for generations?
Since the white Indians have spoken and have shown their love of the most hated ways of the white race, they might as well go over completely to the white race, proclaim themselves white, and get it over with.
Talk about a marriage made in hell.
Many people have the erroneous belief that Five Tribe slavery was not as bad as American slavery practiced against enslaved black people, many people consider NA slavery similar to indentured servitude. In some very limited respects, some of it was in the beginning, a form of indentured servitude, where enslaved black people could become free and intermarry and become a part of the tribe. But, the slavery adopted by the Five Tribes eventually became the same type of slavery practiced by the whites who enslaved black people for over 400 years.
Many people think that the Five Tribes were most humane in their enslavement of black people. But, questions have to be asked:
Choctaw? (Notorious for their inhumanity towards their slaves)
-Seminole? (somewhat better, but, they turned their backs on ex-slaves after the enactment of the Dawes Roll).
In the end, all of the Five Tribes turned on their former black slaves.
Marriage or induction into a tribe does not lessen the “sting” that Native Americans enslaved black people.
Would not slavery of ANY kind be wrong, no matter how benign (”indentured”?) or cruel (chattel)?
If the Cherokee Nation (which sided with the white Confederates of the Civil War) and the Southern whites had won the Civil War, blacks would have not only the white man’s boot on our necks, we would also have the Cherokees, as well.
But, things turned out differently.
I do not see how any kind of slavery can be justified or excused away—no matter who did it:
-Mulatto offspring of enslaved black mother/white slave father (”free persons of color”)
-Past/present-day Arab slave traders
I am sure those black people enslaved by BOTH red and white, would have given anything to be allowed to live freely from anyone’s enslavement. To have lived their lives free of someone leeching off of their free labor, like fat, engorged ticks.
No matter what color, race or excuse they would have given to justify enslaving another human being.
Yes, Indians kept each other as slaves (pre-Columbus, etc.).
Even Indians themselves were kept as slaves by European whites:
Yes, Cherokees walked the infamous the Trail of Tears, known as the Indian Removal:
Trail of Tears route.
Yes, Jacksons’ destruction of native peoples east of the Mississippi……was an atrocity that decimated the former tribes of the eastern part of North America.
Regardless, the Five Tribes hands are not guilt free in their mistreatment of black people during slavery:
“The move to Indian Territory significantly transformed the relationships of blacks and Indians. Slavery became more profitable, and slave-owning Cherokees hardened their attitudes as well as their laws. Not surprisingly, some Indian slaveholders treated their enslaved blacks with abject cruelty. The Cherokee mixed-blood James Vann, for example, is reported to have buried a slave alive as punishment for robbery. The newly enacted slave codes adopted restrictive provisions similar to those in southern states: a member of the Cherokee nation could be expelled for teaching blacks to read, and the death penalty was instituted for any slave convicted of raping a Cherokee women.
“Cherokee leaders encouraged, moreover, full cooperation with the Federal Government in enforcing the new fugitive slave law enacted as part of the Compromise of 1850, designed to stem the flow of escaped slaves to the northern free states.
“The harsher treatment of blacks by the Five Civilized Tribes, including the Seminoles, possibly stemmed in part from the larger number of enslaved blacks held by Indians after the removal. The number of enslaved blacks among the Creeks increased from 502 to 1,532; among the Cherokees, the number grew from 1,592, to 2,511; among the Choctaw, from 512 to 2.349; and among the Chickasaw, the number climbed from several hundred to around 1,000. For the Seminole, the number increased from 500 to less than 1,000, although most scholars dispute this figure as too high in view of the many who are known to have been stolen and sold by slavers or else who had run off to Mexico.
“For whatever reasons, enslaved blacks began running away in record numbers after the removal to the Indian Territory. In 1846, an editorial in the Cherokee Advocate warned that:
“…our country is traversed by numbers [of slaves], who have escaped from their rightful owners; either of the nation or the State, or the Creek country, we have every reason to believe. Some of these have become associated with the band of Seminole slaves under the guardianship of Gen. Jessup—and the mere fact of being thus protected, has infused into them a spirit which leads them with the most bare faced impunity to trespass upon peaceable Cherokees.
“Cherokee newspapers frequently ran advertisements placed by Indian slaveholders seeking fugitive slaves, something uncommon before 1835. The formerly enslaved Betty Robinson, remembered later in life the 1842 slave revolt in Cherokee Territory, when 35 slaves, aided by Seminoles, ran way from their masters, stole firearms, and fled to the Creek Nation, stealing clothes, horses, and mules. They were soon apprehended, however, and returned to the Indians who claimed ownership of them.”
So much for benign treatment.
Native Americans were not so humane towards their black slaves, especially after the white man forcibly kicked them out of their lands. Looks like their change of behaviour occurred about then. Looks like they took their rage and anger out on defenseless black slaves—who were afforded no protection from anyone who sought to enslave them: WHITE OR RED.
And the irony of their adopting white-ways (slavery)—-they did such a good successful job of doing it that greedy, jealous whites drove the Five Tribes from their ancestral land towards Oklahoma. Some Cherokee slavers grew wealthy from the free labor of their slaves, and lived in mansions:
They were also able to amass the following:
Gold watches, as well as the other finer things of life: jewelry, exquisite clothing, high-quality furniture, etc.
Cherokee slavers also obtained wealth from major crops, which were produced by enslaved black men and women, working on labour-intensive crops:
Wealth. . . . built from the backs of enslaved black people’s labor.
The Cherokee grew to become too powerful, and whites wanted them out of the way….and their land.
Today, the Cherokee Nation still shows its contempt for a race of people who have never done them any wrong.
On that note, there is not much of a world of difference between whites and Cherokees, in their shameful mistreatment of their fellow black human beings.
And this from the previous link:
“Imagine what might have happened to enslaved blacks had the Confederacy won the Civil War.”
That is a nightmare I do not want to envision.
The Seminoles started out doing right by formerly enslaved black people:
“The Seminole, Creeks, and Cherokee generally adopted their formerly enslaved blacks fully into their tribes shortly after the Civil War ended; but it was only the Seminoles that immediately extended to them the full rights of citizenship. The Choctaw put off embracing the formerly enslaved as tribal members until 1885; only the Chickasaw, however, refused to take this step, never recognizing their formerly enslaved blacks as full tribal members. (For more a more in-depth look at the Seminoles and formerly enslaved blacks, read the Seminoles and Slaves: Florida’s Freedom Seekers essay.”
Therefore, AFTER slavery the Seminoles gave full-citizenship to their ex-slaves. Now look what has happened decades later with the Seminoles attempting to rescind citizenship to their black “citizens”. Because of their callous treatment of their black citizens, the federal government had to step in and force them to do right by their black citizens.
The Chickasaw mistreated slaves the most, with the Choctaw running a close second. The Creeks were no better.
In fact, in the 1970s, Choctaws did what the Cherokee nation has done, only earlier. The Choctaws did this when no one was the wiser, and with blacks coming off the exhaustion of fighting for the Civil Rights Movement, unfortunately, this inhumane tactic by the Choctaw went under the radar.
I just consider any kind of slavery wrong.
-Adopted slavery (Five Tribes)
PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE SLAVERY.
We all will have to stand before God for all the wrongs we all do.
No matter how big, no matter how small.
Now, we have come to this, so-called “Indians” kicking other “Indians”out of their tribes.
White people are not the only ones who have been contaminated by white capitalist racist patriarchy.
So too have many non-black races in America, and the Cherokee Nation has shown it fullest contempt against its black citizens—-the Freedmen/Women, by disenrolling them and thereby disenfranchising them of their legal citizenship.
This is no different than America eradicating the 14TH Amendment and taking black American’s right to citizenship.
The Freedmen/Women went to the CBC to exercise their rights to protect their citizenship in the Cherokee Nation. Good.
I would have rather they took their case to the United Nations, and brought both the United States and the Cherokee Nation to the world court for this perverted injustice against the Freedmen/Women. They still can do this by enlisting the services of a UN rapporteur to investigate these racial pogroms against the Freedmen/Women black Cherokees.
They may not have won.
Or, they may have won.
And set a precedent.
We will never know.
I would have preferred instead that instead of the black Cherokees going to the government that has sought their destruction, they should instead have taken their case to the UN.
Why continue to go to a government which has sought for over 400 years to destroy you(slavery, white supremacy, lynching, segregation), and is still trying to destroy you any way it can and now the Freedmen/Women have to face virulent racism from those who have suffered from the same white supremacy of the U.S. government? From those who have adopted the worst ways of racist whites?
This is a case of the Cherokee Nation stealing the citizenship of black Cherokees.
The Freedmen/Women have put just as much into the Cherokee Nation, as have black citizens done for America.
Wrong is wrong.
No matter who does it:
WHITE or RED.
(Even though this site states that this is a treaty with the Cherokees, the original Treaty included ALL of the Five Civilized Tribes: Cherokee, Chickasaw, Creek, Choctaw, and Seminole, who had enslaved black people.
(Created in 1896-1897, the Kern-Clifton Roll was created to fill in the omissions of the Wallace Roll.
CENSUS of the Freedmen and their descendants of the Cherokee Nation taken by the Commission appointed in the case of Moses Whitmire, Trustee of the Freedmen of the Cherokee Nation vs. The Cherokee Nation and the United States in the Court of Claims at Washington, D. C., the said Commission being composed of William Clifton, William Thompson and Robert H. Kern, the same being made from the testimony taken before said Commission in the Cherokee Nation between May 4th and August 10th, 1896.
First, Authenticated Freedmen and their descendants.)
WALLACE ROLL OF CHEROKEE FREEDMEN: http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/wallace.php
(The Wallace Roll of Cherokee Freedmen in Indian Territory was created due to the citizenship of many ex-slaves (freedmen) being disputed by the Cherokee Tribe. To the freedmen, the ability to establish their status was important, not only for the sharing of the Cherokee lands, but also the payments and annuities the Cherokee Tribe was to receive in the future. A series of investigations were conducted by John W. Wallace, 1889-1890; Leo E. Bennett, 1891-92; Marcus D. Shelby, 1893; James G. Dickson, 1895-96; William Clifton, William Thompson, and Robert H. Kern, 1896-97. These investigations resulted in the Cherokee Freedmen Rolls known as the Wallace Roll, and the Kern-Clifton Roll.
A schedule of names of Cherokee freedmen created by Special Agent John W. Wallace. Individuals on the schedule were entitled to share with the Shawnee and Delaware in the per capita distribution of $75,000, appropriated by Congress in October 1888, and issued under the supervision of his office. Because of discrepancies, additional supplements were added. In 1896-1897 the Kern-Clifton Roll was created to fill in the ommissions of the Wallace Roll. Genealogists not finding their Cherokee ancestor in the Wallace Roll, should search the Kern-Clifton Roll to insure that this ancestor was not one of those originally ommitted by Wallace.
Many names appear more than one time in a district, and some appear in all districts.)
Here are links where the Cherokee Nation gives biased, one-sided statements about the Cherokee Freedmen/Women, the Cherokee Constitution/Treaty of 1866, and the legal rights the Freedmen/Women have as citizens of the CN:
RACIST ROOTS OF” THE CHEROKEE NATION’S DISENFRANCHISING THE CHEROKEE FREEDMEN/WOMEN”:
For more information on the Seminole $56 million reparation case, click here:
WPA OKLAHOMA SLAVE NARRATIVES (BOOKS GOOGLE.COM)
The federal Bureau of Indian Affairs took a step toward fairness recently when it made some black Seminoles eligible for a few low-level benefits — though …November 18, 2003 – By BRENT STAPLES
They were referred to as Black Seminoles, and were so interrelated with the tribe that Chief Micanopy took up official residence among them. …January 7, 2007
The black Seminoles are represented by a New York lawyer, … In legal papers, the black Seminoles‘ lawyers say federal officials and blood Seminole leaders …January 29, 2001
Sylvia Davis’s struggle on behalf of black Seminoles places her alongside Rosa Parks, the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and Frederick Douglass. …November 25, 2003
In Oklahoma, where the Seminoles were settled, the residents — black, … A similar fate has befallen aging and disabled black Seminoles who have been …April 21, 2002 – By BRENT STAPLES
The battle over the place of the black Seminoles is now at the center of two … It was here that both black and blood Seminoles were forced to move from …January 29, 2001 – By WILLIAM GLABERSON
Both the Seminole and the Cherokee tribes have employed discriminatory policies to prevent black members from receiving tribal benefits — and to strip them …September 12, 2003 – By BRENT STAPLES
The court fight over the black Seminoles is being watched in Washington, … Even while black Seminoles and blood Seminoles are battling over the millions …January 29, 2001
EXCLUDED Polly Gentry, top, and her nieces Polly Jackson and Molly Morrison, above, are among the people who call themselves black Seminoles but have been …January 29, 2001
In conclusion of my trilogy, I will address Sen. Barack Obama’s stance that he has “against any congressional interference at this point”, in the ongoing controversy over Cherokee Nation citizenship for the descendants of former slaves.
THE BLACK RESIDENTS PERSECUTED BY THE CHEROKEE COUNCIL–RELIEF ASKED OF THE GOVERNMENT. WASHINGTON, Feb. 25.–A delegation of colored citizens of the Indian …February 26, 1879
The so-called blood list contained nonblack Cherokees, listed with their percentage of Indian ancestry. The freedmen’s list included the names of any black …March 8, 2007 – Opinion
See also these links on other Afro-Indian groups, many denied Native American status due to their black/African blood lineage:
-“Lumbees Clash With Cherokee At Senate Hearing“
–Buffalo Ridge Cherokee
U.S. CONSTITUTION 14TH AMENDMENT: http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/data/constitution/amendment14/