Airline pilots.

If you are like most Americans, a white male comes to mind, never an image of a black woman or a black man.


Jim Young/Reuters

From left, Delta Air Lines pilots Tim O’Malley, Mike Greer, Steve Uvena and Patrick Gribbin on Capitol Hill in Washington last week to attend a Senate hearing on a potential merger between US Airways and Delta. (Photo courtesy of the New York Times).

But, black airline pilots do most certainly exist.  For years, black aviation history, like most black experiences in America, has been relegated to the back pages of newspapers or to footnotes in books and journals.

Consequently, many aviation buffs have no first-hand knowledge of the black contributions to aviation. These contributions do exist, however, a very small portion been formally chronicled and documented. Because of this, American aviation is often perceived as an exclusively white profession.

The OBAP was created on September 17-18, 1976 when thirty-seven of the industry’s approximately 80 black pilots convened at the O’Hare Hilton Hotel in Chicago. As a result of that meeting, The Organization of Black Airline Pilots (OBAP) was born. The beginning of OBAP was not easy:

“Years ago, Ben Thomas, a young black pilot with Eastern Airlines evaluated the state of the U.S. airline industry. By way of the landmark 1963 U.S. Supreme Court Case, Marlon Green had succeeded in smashing the “Color Barrier” by becoming the first black hired by a major U.S. Passenger Airline (Continental). However, the number of black pilots employed in 1976 was appallingly small. Ben was not alone in recognizing this state of affairs, but his response to the situation was special. He took it upon himself to spearhead an effort to form a permanent body to address this issue. His idea was to simply establish a representative group dedicated to advancing and enhancing the participation of blacks and other minorities in the aviation industry, especially as pilots.

From the outset OBAP has focused its greatest emphasis on preparing young people to realize a successful future and highlight the exciting potential available in aviation. To be certain of an aviation oriented group representing African-American and Minority concerns was neither new nor unique. Years earlier the Tuskegee Airmen Inc. (TAI) and Black Wings in Aviation had been formed with similar goals and both continue to be very active today. OBAP’s unique approach to the concept was to build on the progress made in the military and general aviation arenas by expanding the cause within the airline industry.

In 1982, the “Black Wings” Exhibit debuted in the National Air And Space Museum in Washington, D.C. OBAP participated with other organizations in creating a permanent tribute to African-Americans in Aviation. The continually evolving exhibit serves as an important showcase of often omitted aviation history.

In 1986, OBAP’s General Counsel Eddie Hadden (Eastern) testified before a U.S. Congressional hearing on airline industry hiring practices. Among positive effects of this forum was Congressional pressure on the industry to improve its minority recruiting performance, and the continuing scrutiny of that performance. In 1994 Ed Moon offered additional testimony before a similar session.  (OBAP)

In 1976, approximately 80 black pilots were employed by the nation’s major and commuter passenger airlines and freight carriers. By 1986 that number had risen to nearly 400, and today the total is estimated to be 674, including at least 14 black female pilots (thanks to Bessie Coleman). While the total increase is impressive on the surface, one must realize that there is a total of over 71,000 pilots working for these airlines. The struggle to expand African-American Pilot presence in the faces of unfair hiring/retention practices continues to be an uphill effort, and promises to become increasingly difficult as the generation of black pilots (hired in the 60’s) has already begun to reach mandatory retirement age. Additionally, the military, which serves as a traditional source of airline pilots, especially black pilots , is rapidly being downsized.

In recent years several important rulings in Judicial proceedings have reinforced hope that practices which abrogate and undermine the spirit of official policies will no longer be tolerated without severe penalty. In complementary actions OBAP is proud of the successful cooperative relations and joint activities that it has established with many Airlines, Government Agencies, and Private Organizations over the years to address racial inequities and other issues of mutual concern.

There are indications that these events and initiatives have begun to bear fruit. In 1986, United Airlines had fewer than 35 black pilots, today they employ over 260, including 8 African-American females. In an effort to augment the dwindling military supply of pilots, OBAP President M. Perry Jones played a key role during 1992-93 in encouraging the U.S. Congress to fund a study to evaluate the nation’s supply, demand, and production capacity for airline pilots beyond the year 2000, and the possible advantages of establishing a national aviation training facility at a historically black institution. The result of this effort was approval of a 2 year study by the National Academy of Sciences and an appointed panel. In 1988, United Parcel Service launched a brand new freight airline. From the outset they pledged to aggressively seek to set new standards in the industry relating to minority pilot representation. Today over 3.5% of their pilots are African-American. When Patrice Clarke-Washington upgraded to Captain, UPS became the only major operator to have a black female captain. In an effort to employ resources more efficiently and broaden the impact of our effort, OBAP has sought to join forces with other African-American aviation groups including Tuskegee Airmen Inc. (TAI) and Black Wings in Aviation (NAI). In 1991 and 1992 we convened joint national conventions with TAI and in 1995 we had a joint session with NAI. In an effort to inspire more black youth to become involved in aviation, OBAP played a lead role in expanding the FAA co-sponsored Aviation Career Education (ACE) camps. In 1992 OBAP participated in two of these camps, involving 41 young people. In 1994 we co-sponsored 17 of these camps providing hands-on flying experience for over 400 youth.

While progress during the relatively short lifetime of OBAP has been noteworthy, let none of us forget that the struggle began long before. In fact, the struggle began close to the dawn of American aviation, in the early 1900’s during the Bessie Coleman era. (OBAP).

Coleman-Bessie 01.jpg
Bessie “Queen Bess” Coleman (January 26, 1892 – April 30, 1926), was the first Black American woman to become an airplane pilot, and the first American woman to hold an international pilot’s license.

It dates back to the time when black aviators were categorically denied the right to be certified as pilots in the United States. It continued through the famous “Tuskegee Experience,” which decidedly demonstrated that African-American pilots could fly as well as any group, in combat or otherwise. It continued through the years following World War II when none of the 992 combat qualified graduates of the Tuskegee program were deemed qualified to be pilots for the nation’s major passenger airlines.

It continues today. It will continue as long as necessary.”  (OBAP)

File:First Tuskeegee Class.jpg
Major James A. Ellison returns the salute of Mac Ross of Dayton, Ohio, as he passes down the line during review of the first class of Tuskegee cadets; flight line at U.S. Army Air Corps basic and advanced flying school, Tuskegee, Alabama, 1941 with Vultee BT-13 trainers in the background.

Tuskegee airman poster.jpg
“Keep us flying. Buy War Bonds.” Color poster of a Tuskegee Airman (probably Lt. Robert W. Diez) by an unidentified artist. 1943.

Tuskeegee Airmen – Circa May 1942 to Aug 1943 Location unknown, likely Southern Italy or North Africa, in front of a

 Tuskegee Airmen + US Congressional Gold Medals, 2007March29.jpg
US President George W. Bush presents the Congressional Gold Medal to Dr. Roscoe Brown Jr., during ceremonies honoring about 300  Tuskegee Airmen Thursday, March 29, 2007, at the U.S. Capitol. Dr. Brown, Director of the Center for Urban Education Policy and University Professor at the Graduate School and University Center of the City University of New York, commanded the 100th Fighter Squadron of the 332 Fighter Group during World War II.



 U.S. Air Force Capt. Christina Hopper is, to her knowledge, one of two known black female fighter pilots in the Air Force. She is also the first and only Black female F-16 Fighting Falcon instructor pilot at Luke Air Force Base (AFB) in Arizona and the first female Black F-16 pilot to fight in a war, flying about 50 missions in Iraq.

Captain Christina “Thumper” Hopper teaches men and women in the US Air Force how to fly jets. Not any old jet. The F-16 “Fighting Falcon.”

She has over 800 hours in the F-16 and is currently serving as an F-16 Instructor in the 63rd Fighter Squadron at Luke AFB, Arizona. She is married to Captain Aaron Hopper who also flies the F-16 at Luke AFB.

“Thumper” has flown more than 30 combat missions since the start of the war.


Read about Air Force fighter pilot Shawna Rochelle Ng-A-Qi

OBAP works to motivate black youth to become educationally prepared for life, to increase minority participation in aviation through exposure, training, mentoring, and scholarships; to encourage networking among black pilots; to increase the number of black pilots hired by airlines; and to assist the black airline pilot with special needs and concerns.
OBAP’s  goals continue to evolve and expand, although sometimes complicated by a myriad of obstacles. The airline industry is in an increasing state of flux for which OBAP must adapt and plan. The deregulation turmoil that has shaken the staid, complacent majority pilot group since early 1980, has been an even greater impact upon the minority population. OBAP has worked diligently since its inception to increase the black population in the airline ranks and is determined to build an airline hiring pool which is both inclusive and expansive.

Currently, working in cooperation with several airlines, government agencies, and other private organizations, OBAP has three basic programs. Their mission statement and accomplishments:


The Aviation Career Education (ACE) Program
The Professional Pilot Development Program (PPDP)
The Type Rating Scholarship Program.

Highlights & Accomplishments
OBAP has had many accomplishments during its short existence. Most importantly, it has allowed black pilots, and their families from many airlines to meet, exchange ideas, fellowship, and form a camaraderie that could never have existed without its creation. Through networking, many black pilots’ applications have been helped through the processing maze that may have otherwise been doomed to obscurity.

OBAP has been able to initiate mutually beneficial contacts with CEOs, vice-presidents of flight operations, and personnel officers. Many politicians, educators, entertainers, business experts, clergy, and others have met with and assisted OBAP members. Black aviation, through OBAP, has been spotlighted in the print and broadcast media, both locally and nationally. Some examples of these features include articles in AP Press releases, BLACK ENTERPRISE, CNN News, EBONY, TONY BROWN’S JOURNAL, and local television interviews. OBAP also assisted in establishing the “BLACK WINGS” exhibit at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. which features black aviation pioneers, including some OBAP members.

OBAP has established a scholarship fund to carry out a variety of philanthropic acts. The resources are raised through fundraising activities and voluntary contributions. The proceeds are used for educational and aviation training. One special project is sending students to the summer flight academy, founded by Eastern Airline Captain Les Morris and Mr. Albert Abdool. This summer camp is two weeks of intense aviation education, discipline, and flying. The students get approximately ten hours of flying time and most of them solo.

Future Vision
OBAP does not rest upon these accomplishments. The organization continues to expand its horizon and continue to fine tune its operation to meet the challenges ahead. OBAP has a membership application on its website for all who share and will support its ideals to build a better America for everyone in the world of aviation.  (OBAP)

To learn more about OBAP, click on this link:

Thanks to the hardwork, perseverance, and dedication of the men and women of the OBAP, young black people can set their sights on a career in the skies.

Women in Aviation International

Space Camp

NASA Camp Kennedy Space Center






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  1. Hello ,
    I am looking to contact the author of this writing on The Organization of Black Airline Pilots.
    Thank you.

  2. Plato

    next time i fly lufthansa, i will request a black airline pilot

  3. Ian

    Just so you guys know, when Delta’s first 777-200LR was delivered, Delta’s most senior pilot was a black pilot. Not sure if he’s still there, but as of early last year he was.

    • Al Bassie

      Wow! I read about Marlon Greene being the first black pilot to fly Continental Airlines, but not Delta’s airline. Who is the black pilot? I did not know you could request a black pilot. I usually just pray weeks ahead for the most qualified pilot for the day, coming and going. (smile)

  4. LennyK2

    Can’t we see that this is divisive ?

  5. LennyK2

    Best wishes to all my pilot friends of ALL races

  6. FlyGirl

    In the mid 1960’s there was a black co-pilot that flew with Pacific Airlines which became Hughes Air West.

    I was the first black flight attendant that Pacific airlines hired in 1966, and flew with him on many flights.

    In those days although the airline was trying to hire minorities, there was much racism within the company. I can remember my supervisor who was an out right racist. Even today after all these years I can still hear her nasty, evil words to me.

    In those days passengers would board the plane and many would ask me if I was French, Spanish or something else, but never black. Lol, lol, lol!

    Most were surprised to see a black girl on the line.

    I would love to know what happened to that black pilot.

  7. Will

    LennyK2: What is divisive?

    Black CFII

  8. Will

    I am so glad to see black men and women stand up, and fight for what they (we) have a right to fight for. The initial statement at the opening of this wonderful article is “at the beginning of this article If you are like most Americans, a white male comes to mind, never an image of a black woman or a black man.” That is total truth. Television commercials and airport terminals have imprinted vivid images in our minds of airline pilots being, slightly gray-hair white men (never even a white woman) with that Hollywood, demure, clean shaven, well-educated and smoking a cherry flavored corn huskers pipe. Oh, and earning well into six-figures, annually; living in a super expensive home in a pristine white subdivision. His wife (white) not having to work outside the home. Her responsibilities are to take care of her husband, the house and their two children, a son and daughter. A maid attends to the domestic duties.

    However, things have changed for the better. More often than not, more and more qualified black men and women are filling cockpits seats of major air-carriers, nation-wide. They are occupying the cockpits of both passenger and cargo carrying airlines. These brave souls are the manifestations of those trail blazers that have stood the test of time, in this field that “was” a white male dominated industry. All I can say as a black Instrument-Flight-instructor; flying since I was 18, in the Air Force is “Thank you” for all you have done to make it possible for me to fly as a pilot.


  9. Joe Hall, (U.K.)

    I notice Captain Hopper is more offwhite than black. Does Delta Airlines have any dark skinned black Americans females with thick lips working for them on passenger aircraft ? Or would that be asking for too much !

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